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The Saguache Crescent
Saguache , Colorado
January 24, 1901     The Saguache Crescent
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January 24, 1901

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I I I ~ston began the new century in the field of science by announcing the invention of a system of sigaling under water which is as interesting in its way as Marconi's wireless telegraphy and Which has as wide a range of possibil- ity. The system, which is the discovery of Arthur J. Mnndy of Boston, is based on the use of water as a medium for conveying sounds for long distances, as Marconi uses ether. By lt~ use it has'already been proven that a vessel can be warned of her approach to the coast when at least 12 miles off, in storm or calm, while the approach of one vessel to another can easily be detected at the same dis- lance. This much is beyond question. A number of prominent men have seen 'the system operated, among them Hen- ry M. Whitney, the well-known capi- tallst; Wallace C. Sabine, professor of Physics at Harvard university; Com- mander Arthur P. Nazro, U. S. N., in- specter of the lighthouse district em- bracing the Massachusetts coast; A. P. ~l~arton, master of the United States steamer Mayflower, and Capt. Edward "Baker of the coastwise steamer H. F. "Dlmock, and all are enthusiastic in their praise of the new invention. ~~t~ibiliti~ of In~)ention. The possibilities of the invention in 'war operations have already been ~Pointed out to the inventors by a naval "man. The approach of a su.bmarine q)oat to a cruiser or battleship can be ,detected severa}~niles off and her value :is thus largely discounted, for by means of the apparatus employed in the system the direction from which the destroyer comes is indicated, and the ship on the surface can easily run :away or fight. By the assistance of :this sykes one warship can hear the nection other than the sound waves in the water. Thus a bell may be sub- merged at some dangerous point and a vessel coming within two or three miles of it will be automatically warn- ed. Ships are often lost by getting out of their course, but this apparatus will be on.the lookout and sound an alarm when necessary. Mr. Mundy has invented a very re- markable method for ascertaining the position of a chip by simply noting the interval of time which elapses between the sounds from two clr more bells, This method is termed "'Acoustic Tri- angulation." It is proposed to use either or both methods for locating the ship's position. Intelligent messages may be sent back and forth, either between ships or between ships and the shore. Again, vessels may avoid collision by notify- ing each other of their approach and their course. Again, lightships can communicate.with the shore by merely anchoring a su'bmerged receiver near the lightship, which, being equipped with a submerged bell, can announce the arrival of incoming vessels. This is a problem which has bothered the government, owing to the difficulty of attaching a telegraph cable to a ship swinging around a mooring. The electrical receiver can be used for detecting the approach of a sttb- marine torpedo boat, the noise of which can be plainly heard at a dis- tance of several miles, the sound be- ing intensified by the fact that the submerged boat must transmit all its vibrations to the water. Even small. steam tugs on the surface can be heard at a distance of two miles, the click of their machinery being distinctly aud- ible. As the receiver will tell the di- sumptuous manner, and as the affair Is one of true love rather than diplomacy on her part it is naturally to he ex- pected that she will be generous in her allowance. The country will endow the heir apparent, but she will have to provide for the other children if she has any. The Princess of the Aaturtas is also eligible, so far as money is concerned. There is a fund attached to her principality which brings her 200,000 pesetas a year, about $40,000, which she will enjoy until the king, now 14, marries and has an heir. Be- sides this she has estates and some perquisites. The queen grandmother is opposed to the match, llkewise the Cortes, but Queen Christina has inter- posed in behalf of the princess, and as the latter is uncontrollably l~ love there will be a wedding in spite of the grandmother and the Cortes. Le~on in Economist. The freight rates on iron and steel shipped from Plttsburg to New York have been reduced from 18 eents to 13 cents per hundred pounds. The rates to Chicago haw been reduced from 18 to 15 cents. This is no voluntary de- crease on the part of the roads. It has been extorted from them by Mr. Carnegie, who threatened them with the loss of business. This is a threat to which, when railroads see it can be carried out, they will generally yield, no matter if they are more thoroughly combined than the Eastern roads are now. The Carnegie company intends t5 build extensive works at Conneaut, O. It o~vns the railroad over which ig transports to Pittsburg from that point more than 4,000,000 tons of iron ore a year. At present the cars which carry that ore run back empty to Connea,,+. } i INTERIOR VIEW OF "THE SEA ~Pproach of another in thick weather vr at night and communicate with each Uther. The problem of picking up the sound ~rom the depths of the sea is another story. The inventors have devised a reat variety of receivers~pneumatic, lectrical and mechanical--and have arefully tested them. To Hear tl)# J~ound~. The simplest metnoa on board ship ;Is to go below In the hold as close to the keel as possible, Without any aP- ~ratus whatever, and listen. At a ~lle or more the sound of the bell can be ~istinctly heard. Placing one end of a wooden rod against the skin of the ~hip, the other end being against the sar, the sound is heard at a great dis- lance. A common tin ear trumpe~,such as is used by a deaf person, screwed o~ the end of a piece of gas pipe, the ~uth of the trumpet being sealed by a thin diaphram and. submerged six feet under water, enables the observer at the open upper end of the pipe to hear the submerged bell three miles. For greater distances the inventors have constructed an electrical receiver. The Submerged end of this receiver may be lowered over the side of a ship or attached to it on either side of the bow, under the water line. like a pair ~f ears. The submerged portion is con- nected by an ordinary telephone re- ceiver, which may be carried to any Dart of the ship--say, the pilot house ~whsre the navigator can listen for the bell. Prof. Elisha Gray has devised an Im- Provement for the electrical receiver, by which a large gong will be rung in the pilot house or elsewhere in the ship whenever the submerged bell is ~. That is to say, the gong rings ~rmpathstieally, folloWing the bell ~troke by stroke, there being no con- BELL SHOWING-MACHINE USED IN SIGNALING UNDER WATER. rectlon whence the sounds proceed the warship thus attacked will not have much greater advantage than at pres- ent, except that the crew would get time to say their prayers after learn- ing of the destroyer's approach. It is proposed to establish a practical working station outside of Boston har- bor, so that vessels may learn by prac- tical use the great value of this in- vention. When this demonstration has been made there can be no doubt that it will come into general use and he adopted by ~all the governments in the world having navigable waters.. In the proposed experiments the bell will be lowered In the water on the South Boston side of the harbor and rung, the sound traveling across the harbor through the water, being picked u~ by the receiver and connected with a long distance telephone, and people in Chi- cago, New York, Philadelphia, Wash- lngton, Cincinnati, St. Louis and other places will be permitted to hear the beql. T~o ~RoJ/al ~rarrio~r. Labouchere's Londofi Truth notes as a new departure that neither Prince Henry, who is to marry Queen Wllhei- mina of the Netherlands, nor the Duke of Calabria, who is to marry the Prin- cess of the Asturias, is to have a civil list allowance. Fortunately, the allow- ance is not needed in either case,.u the royal brides are amply able to supply their future husbands with all the spending money they need. Queen Wilhelmina inherited the great for- tune of the late Prince Henry of the Netherlands, which, with Dutch thrift, has been invested so that it yields a large income. With that, her own civil !ist, and the use of palaces and other crown estates and domains, she is in a pOsition to endow her prince in When blast furnaces and a tube and pipe plant are erected tilers the cars will have return loads of coal, coke, and limestone. Nor is this the only advantage. A great part of the steel tubes made in the United States are exported. The Carnegie company, with a plant on Lake Erie, will not have to pay railroad freight to get its products to European markets. It will be able to send them direct by water six months in the year. It will enjoy lower freight rates than the National Tube company,the great comhine with which it intends to compete. The products of the Carnegie com- pany made at its Conneaut plant can be shipped to Chicago by water as well as to Europe. It is altogether for the in- terest of the company, therefore, if freight rates out of Pittsburg are ex- cessive, to manufacture all it can on Lake Erie and to add nothing to or to lessen its output at Pltts'burg. The Irish episcopate has furnished of late a group of names that have made their mark in the literary world ~Alexander, Graves, Trench. Arch- bishop Alexander has Just produced a new volume of verse and nee a near relation of the late Archbishop Trench of Dublin~Herbert Trench~is to pub- lish, under the title of "Deirdre Wed," a first volume of poems, which have already become the subject of highly favorable report. Senator Chandler was late in reach- ing the capitol the other day and was informed by a sarcastic newspaper man that an executive session had Just closed. "What was done In the secret session?" asked the senator. "1 really would ll=e to tell you," was the reply, "but you senators are so leaky that I~ afraid to." arshaIl's , ointment Joh~ Marshall, the fourth Chief Jus- tice of the Supreme Court of the United States, the centennial of whose aP- polntn~ent was this week celebrated all over the country, was born i~ Virginia in 1755. His family was one of the oldest in the colonies, his gradfather having settled in Virginia in 1650. His mother was Mary Isham Keith, a lineal descendant of Robert Kelth, who was grand marshal of the Scottish army under Bruce, His father, Thomas Mar- shall, was a Virginia planter and a man who was noted for his rigid up- rightness and his frankness in speech. When young John Marshall was, years after, a candidate for the Virginia leg-: lslalure from Fauqquler county, only One vote was cast against him. When the elder Marshall heard of this one vote in opposition he declared that the man who ca~t it "could only have been actuated by spite and malice and must be punished." Forthwith he set out to find the name of the single voter and the next time he met him gave him a sound thmshlng. H~ ~,arlJr Education. John Marshall was educated at home by his father and mother until he reached the age of 12 years. Then a private tutor was procured for him. At 14 he was sent to the schOol in Westmoreland county where Washing- ton had been a student, and at which James Madison was one of his felloW- pupllB. He staid there but a year, com- ing back to the plantation at the end of that time to resume his studies un- der a private tutor. He never attended a college. For what was best in his early edu- esty that detractors said he showed every partiality to Burr. A# ~71iam and ~arj/ College. In 1780 capt. John Marshall was sent back to Virginia to take charge of an~ additional troops which might be raised by that commonwealth, and there he took advantage of the oppor- tunity to attend the law lectures at William and Mary College. In the summer of tha~ year he received a li- eense to practice law, but when Gen. Leslis began his invasion of the state, Marshall went back to the army and remained in the field until January, 1781. Then he resigned his commis- sion and resumed the study of law. Almost immediately the young sol- acer ,became prominent in public l~e. In the sprln~ of 1782 he was elect~ to the Virginia House of Burgesses and' in the fall a member of the executive council of the state. In January of 1783 he married Mary Willis Ambler, daughter of the state treasurer. Her mother had refused an offer of mar- riage from Thomas Jeffer~n to marry her father~ and it is a culous matter of history that her father's brother was the successful suitor for the hand of the ,beautiful Miss Cary, wh~) refused on at least two recorded oocasions to become the wife of George Washington. After his marriage John Marshall settled dOWn t~ make his permanent home in Richmond{. In 1784 he resign- ed his seat lm tht executive council of the state to devote himself to the prac- tice of law, in which he was prominent and successful. A~most immediately after his resignation, however, his old quirements of the united States, which was presented to Talleyrand before the envoys were ordered to leave the corns- try. ~.lectcd to Con~r~. ~shall returned to United Btudiea in August, 1798, and Adams at once offered him a seat on the Suprem~ Bench, which he declined to accept In 1~99 he was, much against his own wishes, elected to congress, in which body he served a single term. Daring this term he delivered a speech which is- stir! regarded as one of l~he meet at~th~ritative expositions of ~aterna- tic~al law in its bearing on the extra- dition of citizens of a foreign emmtry. Before his term in Congress had eXo p4red he was made secretary of state lm th~ cabinet of President Adams, and ~m Jan. 20, 1801, he was nominated by the president as chief Justice of the supreme court. The nomination wa~ promptly confirmed and Marshall took his seat at once. During the same year Princeton university conferred the de- gree of doctor of laws upon him. For thirty-five years he served aa chief Justice, and, as has often been said, his best and most enduring mon- ument consists of the thirty volumes of reports of his decisions and of those of the supreme cot~rt while he was at its head. In 1829 he, with Madison an~ Monroe, served as a delegate to the convention for revising the stats con- stitution of Virginia. For six. years more he remained on the bench of the supreme courL In the spring of 1835 he went to Philadelphia to seek medi- cal advice and in that city he died. Besides his published apinlons he Is cation Chief Justice Marshall always gave credit to his mother, who' was a woman of strong character. In his later years he declared that so strong had been the ln~uence of his mother on him that he never failed to repeat svery night the childish prayer of "Now I lay me down to sleep," which he had learned at her knee. ,SYndical ~Lato at 1~. When he was 18 years old he began e study 0f law. Almost immediately, however, the war of the revolution broke out a~d the young lawyer found it necessary to forsake his books for the sword. He joined a company of V~'.~inia volunteers and devoted hlm- ~if to training them for active service. His father. Thomas Marshall, was ap- pointed colonel of a regimen~t of minute men, in which John became a lieuten- ant. BY way of uniform the men of the regiment ~wore ~reen hunting shirts on the breasts of which was embroid- ered the motto, "Liberty or Death," and the regimental flag bore the image of a c~lled rattlesnake with the warn- ing message, "DOn't Tread on Me." As weapons they carried rifles, knives and tomahawks. Almost ~vithout exception they were expsrieneed hunters, good shots, and used to the harships of the chase. A~ Armj~ Li~#~nant. Lieut. ~Iarshall early distinguished himself for bravery and. good Judgment in command of his men. He took part in all the most important battles of the war. He was exceedingly popular in the army, and was often chosen to aet as umplre in disputes arising be- tween .both officers and men. Thus at an extremely early age the judiciUl temperament, which afterward so greatly .distinguished him, was recog- nized. In the army he became well acq'uatnte.d with (~en. Washington and with Col. Alexander Hamilton. Ham- lltcn' he had met before in a surveying expedition in West Virginia, and for him especially he formed an attaCh- ment which lasted during his life. When in after years he was called upon to preside over the trial of Aaron Burr, the murderer of his friend, it was re= marked as the stongest possible proof of the Justice of his character that he could do so with such fairness and hen- friends in Fauquier cc,unty chose him to represent them in the House of Burgesses. In 1787 he was chosen a member of the same body from the dis- trtct which comprised the City of Rich- mond, and in that capacity he was chiefly instrumental in securing the ratification of the constitution of that United States, which he afterwards did so much to expound. The value of his servlees in this connection may bs g~thered from the fact that the leader of the forces opposed to the ratification of the cons~itution was Patrick Henry, to whose spbeches Marshall was always expected to reply. A~ a ~oi# Thro~oor. Bat the future chief Justice did not devote all his time to grave and serious pursuits. He was one of the founders and for many years the most popular member of the Richmond Quoit club, which was formed in 1778 and lasted for more than forty years. This fa- mous club met every two weeks at ground~ a mile outside the city of Richmond, where a dinner, the chief feature of which was a barbecued pig, was served before the game began. One of the .things which the Quoit club has bequeathed to posterity is the recipe for its justly celebrated punch. It was composed of equal quantities of brandy, rum and Madeira, poured into a great bowl one-third filled wlth lee (no water), and flavored with lemons and sugar. This punch is still one of the ,boasts of Richmond. Wanted in W~hi~ton " ~ C~bin~t In 1795 President Washington offered John Marshall the appointment of At- torney General of the united States. which he declined. He was now 40 years old, and stood at the head of the Virginia @or. Next year Washington Wished him to succeed James Monroe as one of .the envoys of the United States to France. This appointment he also declined, but when Adams named him as o~s of the envoys to France in 1797 he felt that his duty to his.coun- try compelled him to accept it. He and his fellows were not successft~l, how. ever, in establishing satisfactory rela- tions with the French g~vernment'and Marshall d~ew ~tp an elaborate state- sent,-setting forth the views and r~. the author of a five-volume life of Washington, which was published in 1804. Many statues, busts and portraits of John Marshall are in existence. His figure is on the Washington monument at Richmond, Va.. and there are two portraits In the consultation room of the supreme court at Washl~,ton. ~Pa~1-American Cont]r~.r. Relatively the pro.~gresa of nmh~ of the American repu, blies recently has been as great as that of the United States. From every part of the hemi- sphere come reports of enterprise and ae~tivity, From Alaska to Patagonia the story is tae same. In Argentina a dozen railroads are ,building and pro- Jected. At Belle~ Hortzonte, the eapitai of the state of Minas Geraee in Bra~tl, a ~permanent exposition of the state's industries and products Is t,o ~ in- augurated. This state, which ha~ as many inhabitan~ as Illinois,is mak- ing great strides in every particular, an~ its g~ld product last year exceeded $3,000,000. Scores of new factories are being established in Brazil. New coal and copper mines are being develop~ in Chile. Woolen and cotton factories axe being established t~ere for the first time. and beets are being raised an~l sugar refineries built. The most im- portant railroad enterprise in C~tle l~ the Central railway, which is 'to lm ex~tended "to 1,300 kilometers, at a eo~ of $30,000,000. Nearly every republic has railroad enterprises on foot and agricultural resources are being de- vel