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The Saguache Crescent
Saguache , Colorado
June 18, 1931     The Saguache Crescent
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June 18, 1931

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THE SAGUACHE CRESCENT I ].i00m00o I anti I00is, ' cr, m.nt ' I) By ELMO SCOTT WATSON 1r_, WAS Just 260 years ago that an Eng- lishman gave to the world a new ! .,.| idea in government which antici-  pated modern ideas of a rule of the dl   people which guaranteed religious  and civil liberty. The man was /Blmh. William Penn, and this is the story ' "holy experiment." of his In 1661 William Penn was a sev- enteen-year-old student at Christ Church, Oxford. His ather, a dis- tinguished admiral of the British navy, was tn high favor at the court because he had aban- doned his former allegiances of friendship and had aided in the restoration of King Charles II to the throne. His son was associating with the sons of the nobility who had remained loyal to the Stuarts and was receiving an education which would fit him to follow in the footsteps of his father, the old sea dog, and to obtain preferment at the hands of King Charles. But, unlike the other young men of the time, there was a vein of serious thought in young Penn and he had become much concerned with the problem of religious liberty. Even while at- tending a high church College he was secretly attending the meetings and listening to the doc- trines of tile Quakers, a despised and outlawed sect which had sprung up during the Seventeenth century. It was during this time that young Penn began to hear of the plans of a group of Quakers to found colonies in the New world, but it was to be many years before Penn was to see those plans materialized and he himself. to have a hand in bringing them about. At Oxford, Penn came under tlle influence of two men who were profoundly influencing the youth of that day--John Locke, the philosopher, and Thomas Lowe, a leading Quaker preacher. In 1670 Penn was arrested in London for preaching in the street and was confined in the Tower. After his release from prison he made a missionary Journey through Holland and Ger- many and at Emden founded a Quaker colony. Some of these Germans were later to aid him in building his great commonwealth. In the meantime his father had died, but had called ihis son to his deathbed. "Let nothing in the world tempt you to wrong your conscience," was ihls last whispered admonition to his Quaker son and one of the last acts of the admiral was to send a message to the king's brother, the :duke of York, begging him, in memory of his services to the Stuarts, to protect William from persecution. He also left his son a debt of 16,000 sterling owed him by Charles II. Although Charles was not especially famous for remem- bering and repaying debts, this is one which he seems to have been scrupulous about. The king was poor in money, but he was rich in lands in orth America. This Immediately suggested to Penn a chance to carry out the plan for a  .Quaker colony which he had first heard as a student at Oxford. In a royal proclamation dated April 2, 1681, King Charles announced "to the inhabitants and planters of Pennsylvania in America" he had granted a charter to William Penn to take pos- session of thin new American province. Having received his charter Penn next drew up a constitution or "frame of government" in consultatfon with Algernon Sydney and other noted English Liberals. The preamble and some of the provisions of this charter of liberties, the original of which is preserved in the  Pennsyl- .vania state archives of today, reads as follows : ' To all people to whom these present shall ome WHEREAS King Charles the second by his Letters, Patents under the Great Seal of Eng- land for the Considerations therein mentioned hath been graciously pleased to give and grant unto me.William Penn (By the name of William Penn Esq'r, son and heir of Sr. William Penn deceased) and to my heirs and assigns forever ALL that tract of land or province called Penn- sylvania in America with divers Great Powers Prehemlnencies Royalties Jurisdictions and Au- thorities necessary for the well-being and Gov- ernment thereof now know ye that for the Well Being and Government of the said Province and for the Encouragement of all the ffreemen and Planters that may be therein concerned in pur- suance of the powers afore mentond I the said VCllllam Penn have declared Granted and Con- rmed and by these presents for me my heirs and Assigns do declare grant and Confirm unto all the freemen Planter and Adventurers of in and to the said Province those Liberties ffran- chises and properties to be held Enjoyed and 'Kept by the Freemen Planters and Inhabitants of and in the said province of Pennsylvania forever. "Imprimis"--THAT the Government of this province shall according to the Powers of the Patent consist of the Governour and firemen of the said Province in the flora of a Provin- cial Council and General Assembly by whom all Laws Shall be made Officers Chosen and publlck affairs Transacted and is here after Respectively declared That is to say 2. That the flreemen of tl mild Province bhall on the Twentieth day l.William Penn, Founder of the Colony of Pennsylvania, which became the Keystone State of today. 2.Penn's Treaty with the Indians. From the painting by Benjamin Webb. 3.--A portion of the original William Penn Charter of Liberties, showing his signature and seal affixed by him in 1682. This historic document was purchased from a New York collector sev- eral years ago for $25,000 raised by popular subscription and is now in the state archives in Har- rlsburg. 4.--Old Quaker Meeting Housb at Jordan* in Buckinghamshire, England: In the foreground is the private cemetery of the Penn family. The headstone at the extreme right marks the grave of William Penn, who was buried there after his death in 1718. He was survived by 11 sons who, with his two wives, are also buried here, with the exception of two sons, who are buried in the Stoke Pores graveyard. of the Twelfth month which shall be in this present year One Thousand Six Hundred Eighty and two Meet and Assemble in some fit place of which timely notice shall be beforehand given by the Governour or his deputies and then and- there shall chuse of themselves Seventy-two per- sons of most note for their Wisdom Virtue and Ability who shall meet on the Tenth day of the ffirst month next ensuing and always be called and act as the Provincial Council of the said province .... 5. That--In the provincial Council in all Cases and matters of moment as There agreing upon Bills to be passed into Laws Exhorting Courts of Justice having Judg- ment upon criminals Impeached and choice of Officers in such manner as is herein after men- coned Not lesse than Two Thirds of the whole Provincial Council shall make a Quorum and that the Consent and approbation of Two Thirds of said Quorum shall be had in all such Cases or matters of Moment. And moreover that in all cases and matters of lesser moment Twenty- flour members of the said Provincial Council shall make a quorum. The Majority of which flour and Twenty shall and may always deter- mine on such Cases and Causes of Lesser mo- ment. * * * 10. That--The Governor and Provincial Council shall at all times settle and order the Situation of all Cities ports and Mar- ket towns in every County modelling therein all publick buildings Streets and Market places and shall appoint all necessary roads and high- ways in the province. 11. That--The Gover- hour and Provincial Council shall at all times have power to inspect the management of the public Treasury and punish those who shall Convert any part thereof to any other use than what hath been Agreed upon by the Governour Provincial Council and General Assembly. 12. ThatThe Governour and Provincial Council shall Erect and order all publick Schools and tncourage and Reward the Authors of usefull Science and Laudable Inventions in the said province. . . . 24. And lastly that I the said WilUam Penn for myself, my heirs and Assigns have Solemnly declared granted and confirmed and do hereby solemnly declare grant and con- firm that neither I my heirs nor Algas shall procure or do anything or things whereby the Liberties in this Charter contained and ex- pressed shall be Infringed or broken And if anything be procured by any person or persons contrary to these premises it shall be held of no force or Effect. In witness whereof I the said William Penn have unto this present Char. ter of Liberties Set my hand and Broad Seal" this five and Twentieth day of the Second Month vulgarly called April In the year of our Lord One Thousand Six Hundred Eighty and Two. WM. PENN. Penn brought this charter of liberties with him when he came to his colony for the first time In the fall of 1682. It was submitted to the people at a meeting of the first assembly of the new colony held at Chester, Pennsylvania, for- merly known as Upland, which had been set- tled by the Swedes in 1645. This frame of gov- ernment underwent several minor changes later, becoming more liberal eac time. "Penn had now started his 'Holy Experiment,' as he called his enterprise in Pennsylvania," writes Fisher, "by whicl| he intended to prove that religious liberty was not only right, but that agriculture, commerce and all arts and re- finements of life would flourish under it. He would break the delusion that prosperity and morals were possible only under some one par- ticular faith established by law. Penn's "Holy Experiment" soon passed out of the realm of experiment. It became a fact. The colony prospered amazingly. Penn's famous treaties of friendship with the Indians permit- ted the colony to live in peace with tile red men for three-quarters of a century. The doors of the colony were hospitably opened to men of all nations and of all creeds. After Penn's return to England he fell for a time upon evil days. He became the victim of dishonest sub. ordinates, ran into debt and for some time was consigned in debtor's prison. But the last six or eight years of his life were free from trou- ble. On July 30, 1718, Penn died at the age of seventy-four. He was buried in the grave- yard of ttle little Quaker church at Jordans in Buckingham. ( by Western Newspaper Union.) The scores of workers in the large food establishments where hundreds of thousands of died beans are graded after each crop became positively weary, and their employers found by experience that the sorting of the beans suffered as a result. Toward tile end of each day, beans of inferior grade were left in the package of. higher grade beans, and the food pack- ing concerns cast about for some new method of sorting and grading beans. Science came to their rescue. The "bean growers' eye" was produced. It really cannot think, of course, but it performs its task much more accurate- ly and swiftly than human beings, and completely does away with the care- lessness of human sorters. The "eye" is fastened above a car- rier along which the beans are trans- ported, and it is an infallible detector of inferiority. As the beans pass un- der it, the inferior beans are auto- matically cast aside, a'nd those re- maining are separated according to their grades. Tile device is simply a photo-electric cell, a simple electric bulb with a coating inside of certain elements. The sensitized mirror surface of the bulb causes it to give off electrons that are sensitive to long light waves or short light waves, whichever is de- sired, and the reflecton or non-reflec- tion of the inferior bean attracts the attention of the photo-electric cell. The cell communicates with a bat. tory attachment and the battery throws out a current of electricity. The current, becoming greatly magni- fied, gives forth enough eneagy to con- trol a mechanical device which re- moves the inferior bean. Simple, isn't it? One such device does the work of many human hands and eyes, and never becomes fatigued or careless The "eye" ts one of the marvels of modern science, developed and adapt- ed to the necessities of modern indus- try. Although conceived and produced primarily for bean growers, its use has been extended to many other in- dustries, until now it plays an impor- tant part in the sorting and grading of many other foods and products. It plays its part in the orange groves of California and Florida,where it sorts oranges. Thls little device can look at thousands of oranges passing it in the packing houses pf the citrus districts, and unerringly pick and sep- arate tile green, partly green and ripe fruit. The "eye" is becoming more and more useful, too, in the tobacco-grow- ing areas of the country. It is rap- idy abolishing the tedious Job of sort- ing leaf tobacco. The "eye" looks over the tobacco as it comes from the cur- ing houses, and automatically grades and sorts the leaves, and it does so much more accurately than the hu- man hand and eye could do it. That old prerogative of the woman shopper--matching colors--is being abolished by the electric "eye." A simi- lar device to that used for grading beans for baking has been developed that looks at two pieces of silk, wool or cotton, and unerringly matches them. Since no two pieces of cloth are of exactly the same shade, the build- ers of this modern robot deliberately made it slightly inaccurate. Instead of demanding that colors match per- fectly, the "eye" declares them matched when they are only a few thousandths of a degree of shade apart in color. The woman shopper, no matter how good her eyesight, cannot tell the dif- ference between two pieces of cloth that are whole shades apart. The "eye" could match colors perfectly, but they won't let it. Whenand ifthis device is univer- sally adopted, what a boon it will be to women shoppers. No more running from store to store to match a pace of goods for Sally's new dress, or to match stockings for that new evening gown. All a woman will have to do will be to take a sample of the color she wants to the store, and let the "eye" do the work. She will know that the colors match absolutely, so perfectly that no human eye ever could tell any difference. ('L 1931. Western Newspaver Union.I Surprise for Auntie A schoolboy, eight years old, was giving his aunt a Bible as a birthday present. Not knowing Just whal to write in it as an inscription, he went to his father's bookshelves, and ex- amined the fly-leaves of a number of the volumes arranged thereon. After a rather protracted inspec'ion and comparison of the various dedications, ]m finally decided upon the following Saving His Skin "Why are you running so?" "I want to prevent a.duel between two married men." "You have humanitarian ideas. Who are the men?" "One is myself."Excelslor, Mexico City.  flies carry typhoid k,l! them qmck! l| Largest Seller in 121 Countrle : Tons of Red Sediment in Downpour of Rain Frederick Chapman, paleontologist of the Australian commonwealth, has continued his observations on red rain in southeastern Australia which he began in conjunction with H. $. Grays0n in 1903. On the night of December 31, ]927, after a strong northerly wind had carried thick clouds of dust over Victoria and blown the finer particles southward over Bass strait, there were heavy but irregularly distributed falls of red rain. Mr. Chapman estimated the amount deposited in Balwyn, a suburb eight miles east of Melbourne, at 51 tons to the square mile; the commonwealth meteorologist, H. A. HuJt, estimated the deposit at 24 tons to the square mile. The red dust on this occasion was exceptionally sticky, as the innumer- able diatoms--nitzschia and coceo- neis--stitl contained their endoch- rome. The red stains on leaves and flowers in the gardens were re- rained for days and even weeks. The impressions on glass indicate that each raindrop was coated by a thin film of tile dust. '3n November 3, 1920, after a northerly gale, showers of red rain fell at 7:00 p. m. and after 9:00 p. m. The amount of the red sediment collected in a vessel in bit. Chapman's garden indicated a fall of 64 tons to the square mile, or, if it had been equally distributed over Victoria, a fall of nearly 6,000,- 000 tons in that state. Both the mi- nute reddish flakes of sediment and the diatoms and sponge spicules show that the material had been derived frum the arid regions in the north- west. of Victoria and in central AuS- tralia.--Nature Magazine. Many Amerlcan Indians lecent estimates show there are 340,541 Indians enumerated at 82 fed- eral agencies located in 25 states, and there are 7,923 Indians living in states in which there are no agen- cies. Oklahoma has the most In- dians, 121,531. Arizona next with 45,- 350, followed in order by New Mex- ico, South Dakota, California, Minne- sota, Montana, Washington, Wiscon- sin, North Dakota. Grinnell's "In- dians of Today" gives the number of reservations as 186, scattered through 27 states. Some of the larg- est tribes are the Navaho, Choctaw, Apache, Sioux, Hopl, Crow, Chippe- wa, Cherokee, Arapaho, etc. In the census of 1910 there were found to be represeniatives of 2S0 Indian tribes in this country. "Urban Population" Heretofore it has been defined by the census bureau that the term "ur- ban population" includes all citleS and other incorporated places having 2,500 inhabitants or more. For use in connection with the 1930 census the definition has been extended to include townshlps and other similar political subdivisions (not incorporat- ed as municipalities) which have a total population of 10,000 or more and a population density of 1,000 or more per square mile. Call for Beetles Issued Live death-watch beetles are urg- ently needed by the Forest Products' laboratory, at Princes Rlsborough, England, according to appeals to tim- ber owners. It is explained that the death-watch beetle is so elusive that it cannot be found in timber it has damaged. The desired specimens are to be put in a large cage with a sup- ply of old wood, so that the insect's life and habits may be studied. Or Getting One Back Snig--"Know anything harder than a diamond!" Suigger--"Sure, mak- ing the payment on one." Balsam of Myrrh as themostsultable, and wrote on the leaf, in his best hand: "With he eu. w,os, mtts, it author'S compllmnts."--London Eve- , =s  st, w, e.. IPlaeed msywhere, DAISY IPLY  a/;'sets k all  Nt. elma. ammatal. eeawet--t 1