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October 10, 1901     The Saguache Crescent
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October 10, 1901

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American citizen who has ever been called to the head of our nation. He was born in New York City, October 27, 1858, his father, after whom he was named, being a prominent merchant, a patriot, a philanthropist, and a mov- ing spirit in the Civil War. The elder Theodore Roosevelt went to Washing- ton after the first Battle of Bull Run, and warned President Lincoln that he must get rid of Simon Cameron as Sec- retary of War, with the result that Mr. Stanton, the" "organizer of vic- tory," took his place. When the war was fairly under way, it was Theodore Roosevelt who organized the allotment plan, which saved the families of eighty thousand soldiers of New York State more than five million dollars of their pay; and when the war was over he protected the soldiers against the sharks that lay in wait for them, and saw to it, that they got employment. Through his influence the New York newsboys' lodging-house system and many other institutions of public bene- fit and helpful charity were established. There were four children in the Roose- velt family, of whom Theodore was the second. There were two boys and two girls. A younger brother was killed in a railroad accident, and the hopes of the father were centered on Theodore. At the age of five or six, Theodore gave little promise of maintaining the pres- tige of the Roosevelt family line. ~he ~re.ttden#'m Eorly ~oyhood. He was a puny, sickly, delicate boy. Sonic one who knew him in those days of the Civil War described him as a "weak-eyed, pig-chested boy, who was too frail to take part in the spdrts of lads of his age." When he arrived at the age of six, he was sent to the famous old McMullen School, wher~ he remained for eight years. It was not, however, in New York that the boy Roosevelt spent with most profit the months to which he looks back with pleasure. The elder Roosevelt believed that children best thrive in the coun- try. He selected a beautiful spot near the village of Oyster Bay, on the north shore of Long Island, and erected a country house which well deserves its title, "Tranquility." Here it was among the hills which border the sound and the bay, that Theodore Roosevelt and his brother and sisters spent the long summer months. At fourteen Theodore was admitted to tJ-~ Cutler School, a private academy in New York conduct- ed byArthur H. Cutler. Here he took the preparatory course for Harvard University, making rapid advancement under the careful tuition of Mr. Cutler, and graduating with honors. Become.s an Athlete. By careful attention and plenty of gymnasium exercise and out-of-door life his frame became more sturdy and his health vastly improved. It thus happened that when young Roosevelt entered on college life at Harvard, in 1875, he suffered little by comparison with boys of his age. While he did not stand in the front rank of athletics, he was well above the average, and had no reason to be ashamed of his physi- eal prowess. Never for a waking moment was he idle. It was either study o'r exerc',se. In addition to his regular studies and special courses he took upon himself the editorship of the college paper, and made a success of it. He was demo- cratic in his tastes and simple in his mode of )ivlng. Theodore Roosevelt was graduated from Harvard in 1880 with high honors. In spite of severe study, his health was but little im- paired, and he at once started on a foreign Journey in search of instruc- tion, pleasure and adventure. He dis- tinguished himself as a mountain climber, ascending the Jungfrau, the Matterhorn and many other peaks, and was made a member of the Alpine Club f London. ~inm ..~udJr of Late. On his return to America he studied law, and in the fall of 1881 he was elected to the State Assembly from the Twenty-first District of New York, generally known as Jacob Hess's dis- trice. By re-electlon he continued in the body during the session of 1883 and 1884. He introduced important reform measures, and his entire legislative career was made conspicuous hy the courage and zeal with which he as- sailed political abuses. As chairman of the Committee on Cities he introduced the measure which took from the Board of Aldermen the power to con- firm or reject the appointments of the ,.~yor. He was chairman of the noted legislative investigating committee which bore hla name. In 1884 he went to the Bad Lands in Dakota, near the "'Pretty Buttes," where he built a log- c~bil, and for several years mingled the life of a ranchman with that of a literary worker. From l.is front door he could shoot deer, and the mountains around him were full of big game, Amid such surroundings he wrote some of his most popular books. He became a daring horseman and a rival of the cowboys in feats of skill and strength. In 1886 Mr. Roosevelt was the Republican candidate tor Mayor against Abram S, Hewitt, United Democracy, and Henry George, United Labor. Mr. Hewitt was elected by about twnnty-two thousand plurality. In 1889 Roosevelt was appointed by Prsaident Harrison a member of the I .2 6 pRESIDENT,of U. 5. United States Civil Service Commie-me afterward that the man had come sion. His ability and rugged honesty in the administration of the affairs of that office greatly helped to strengthen his hold on popular regard. ~olice Commimmioner in .Nero Nor~, Roosevelt continued in that office un- til May 1, 1895, when he resigned to accept the office of Police Commis- sioner from Mayor Strong. He found the administration of affairs in a de- moralized condition, but he soon brought order out of chaos. Says James A. Riis, who is an intimate friend of! President Roosevelt: W'e had been trying for forty years to achieve a system of dealing decently with OUr homeless poor. Two score years be- fore. the surgeons of the police depart- ment had pointed out that herding them in the cellars or over the prisons of police stations in festering heaps, and turning them out hungry at daybreak to beg their way from door to door, was indecent and inhuman. Since then grand Juries, acad- emies of medicine, committees on phil- anthropic citizens, had attacked the foul disgrace, but to no purpose. Pestilence ravaged the prison lodgings, but still they stayed. I know what that fight meant. for :I was one of a committee that waged it year after year, and suffered defeat every time, until Theodore Roosevelt came and destroyed the nuisance In a_ night. I remember the caricatures of tramps shivering in the cold with which the yellow newspapers pursued him at the time, labeling him the "poor man's foe." And I remember being Just a little uneasy lest they wound him. and perhaps make him think he hRd been hasty. But not he. It was only those who did not know him who charged him with being hasty. He thought a thing out quickly-- yes, that is his way; but he thought it out, and, having thought it out, suited ac- tion to his Judgment. Of the consequences he didn't think at all. He made sure he was right, and then went ahead with per- fect confidence that things would come out right. Z'li.s AdVice 1o Organizsd Labor. Mr. Riis says he never saw Roose- velt to better advantage than when he once confronted the labor men at their meeting-place, Clarendon Hall: The police were all the time having trouble with strikers and their "pickets." Roosevelt saw that it was because neith- er party understood fully the position of the other, and, with his usual directness, sent word to the labor organizations that he would like to talk it over with them. At his request I went with him to the meeting. It developed almost immedi- ately that the labor men had taken a wrong measure of the man. They met him as a politician playing for points, and hinted at trouble unless their demands were reef. Mr. Roosevelt broke them off short: "Gentlemen!" he said--with that snap of the Jaws, that always made people lis- ten~'I asked to meet you, hoping that we might come to understand one anoth- er. Remember. please, before we go fur- ther, that the worst injury anyone of you can do to the cause of labor is to counsel violence. It will also be worse for him- self. Understand distinctly that order will be kept. The police will keep it. Now we can proceed." I was never so proud and pleased as when they applauded him to the echo. He reddened with pleasure, for he saw that the best in them had come out on top, as he expected it would. Attacl(Fd by "'yello~J,'" .Ne~m- /Japers, It was of this incident that a handle was first made by Mr. Roosevelt's ene- mies in and out of the police board-- and he had many--to attack him: It happened that there was a music- hall In the building in which the labor men nret. The yellow newspapers circu- lated the lie that he went there on pur- pose to see the show, and the ridiculous story was repeated until actually the llars persuaded themselves that it was so. They would not have been able to under- stand the kind of man they had to do with, had they tired. Accordingly they fell into their own trap. It is a tradition of Mulberry Street that the notorious Seeley dinner raid was planued by hls en- emies in the department of which he was the head, In the belief that they would catch Mr. Roosevelt there. The dinners were supposed to be his "'set," Some time after that, Mr. Riis was in Roosevelt's office when a police of- ficial of superior rank came in. and re- quested a private audience with .him: They stepped aside and the policeman spoke in an undertone, urging something strongly. Mr. Roosevelt tlstened. Sud- denly I eat him straighten up as a man recoils from something unclean, and dis- miss the other with a sharp: "No, sir! I don't fight that way." The policeman want out crestfallen. Roosevelt took two or three turns about the floor, atrugglinK ~lenUy" with stro~ disgust~ He told to him with what he said was certain knowledge that his enemy could that night be found in a known evil house up- town, which it was his alleged habit to visit. His proposition was to raid it then and so "get square." To the policeman it must have seemed like throwing a good chance away. But it was not Roosevelt's way; he struck no blow below the belt. Id the governor's chair afterward he gave the politicians whom he fought, and who fought him, the same terms. They tried their best to upset him, for they had nothing to expect from him. But they knew and owned that he fougtlt fair. Their backs were secure, lie never tric~xed them to gain an advantage. A promise given by him was always kept t~ the letter. Ammt.rtan# .~ecretary Of" .Na~Jy. Early in 1897 he was called by Presi- dent McKinley to give up his New York office to become Assistant-Secre- tary of the Navy. His energy and quick mastery of detail had much to do with the speedy equipment of the navy for its brilliant feats in the war with Spain. It was he who suggested Admiral Dewey for commander of the Asiatic station. Dewey was sometimes spoken of in those days as if he were a kind of fashion-plate. Roosevelt, however, had faith in him, and while walking up Connecticut avenue one day said to Mr. Riis: "Dewey is all right. He has a lion heart. He is the man for the place." No one now doubts the wis- dom of his selection, and naval officers agree that the remarkable skill in marksmanship displayed by the Amer- ican gunners was due to his foresight. He saw the necessity of practice, and he thought it the best kind of economy to burn up ammunition in acquiring skill. A characteristic story is told regard- ing Roosevelt's insistence on practice In the navy. Shortly after his appointment he asked for an appropriation of $800,000 for ammunition, powder, and shot for the navy. The appropriation was made, and a few months later he asked for another appropriation, this time of $500,000. When asked by the proper authorities what had become of the first appropriation, he replied: "Every cent of it was spent for powder and shot, and every bit of powder and shot has been fired." When he was asked what he was going to do with the $500,- 000, he replied: "Use every ounce of that, too, within the next 'thirty days in practice shooting." Hi~ Cuban W~ar "Record. Soon after the outbreakof the war, however, his patriotism and love of active life led him to leave the compar- ative quiet of his government office for ~ervice in the field. As a lieutenant- colonel of volunteers he recruited the First Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the "Rough Riders." The men were gathered largely from the cowboys of the west and southwest, but also numbered many college-bred men of the east. In the beginning he was second in command, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, Dr. Leonard Wood being colonel. But at the close of the war the latter was a brigadier- general and Rodsevelt was colonel iu command. Since no horses were trans- ported to Cuba, this regiment, togeth- er with the rest (~ the cavalry, was obliged to serve o~ foot. The regi- ment distinguished itself in the San- tiago campaign, and Colonel Roosevelt became famous for his bravery in lead- ing the charge up San Juan Hill on July 1st. He was an efficient officer, and won the love and admiration of his men. His care for them was shown by the circulation of the famous round- robin which he wrote protesting against keeping the army longer in Cuba. Am Go~ernor ,off .~e~ ~org. Upon Roosevelt s return to ~ew York there was a popular demaud fo~ his nomination for governor. Pre- vious to the state convention he was nominated by the Citizens' Union, but he declined, replying that he was a Republican. The Democrats tried to frustrate his nomination by attempting to prove that he had lost his legal resi- dence in that state. T~at plan fallad nor Black. The campaign throughout the state was spirited. Roosevelt took the stump and delivered many speeches. His plurality was 18,079. As the campaign of 1900 drew near, the popular demand that Roosevelt's name should be on the National Re- publican ticket grew too imperativ~ to be ignored by the leaders. The honor of the nomination for Vice-Pres- ident was refused time and time again by Roosevelt, who felt that he had a great duty to perform as governor of New York state. Says Cal O'I,aughlin. apropos of tl]e Republican National Convention, which was held in Philadelphia on June 19, 20 and 21, 1900: .Nomtna~ion a# ~hiladel~hia. On the evenlng of the first day of the convention, Roosevelt saw Plate. "My name must not be presented to the con- vention," he told him. Plate was mad, and mad clean through; but he acquiesced and ]Roosevelt returned to his apartment to run into the arms of the Kansas dele- gation. "We do not request you to ac- cept the nomination," said State Senator Burton; "we do Ilot urge you-to accept the nominatiou, but we propose to issue orders to you, and we expect you to obey them." Throughout the delivery of Mr. Burton's remarks, Roosevelt stood, with shoulders square and feet at right angles, his chin occasionally shooting forward, as if he were on the point of objecting to the argument that he alone could rescue "bleeding Kansas" from demagogism and populism. But he waited patiently until the address was ended, and then appealed to the gansans to take his words at their face value, and vote for some one of the candidates. But his appeal was useless, for Senator Burton, grasping his hand, congratulated him "in advance upon his nomination and election," and the dele- gation enthusiastically approved the sen- timents. So certain was Kansas that Roosevelt would be the choice of the con- vention, that it had printed a huge plac- ard, bearing the words in large, black type: "KANSAS DELEGATIOI~" FIRST TO DECLARE FOR GOVERNOR ROOSEVELT." And, when the nomination was declared to have occurred, triumphantly carried it about Convention Hall. After his nomination, Roosevelt said: I held out as long as I could ~ had to give in when I saw the popular sentiment of the convention. I beheve it is my duty. Now that it is all over, I want to say that I appreciate fully the sentiment which accompanied my nomination. The unan- imity and enthusiasm of the convention for my nomination never will be forgot- ten by me. During the political campaign which followed, he traveled 16,100 miles, flashed through 23 states, delivered 459 speeches, containing 860,000 words, and made his appeal directly to 1,- 600,000 persons. Hi, r Capacity for Word(. Mr. Rils says that the thing that be- clouds the Judgment of hls critics is Roosevelt's amazing capacity for work. He says: He can weigh the pros and cons of'a case and get at the meat of it in tess time than It takes most of us to state the mere proposition. And he is surpris- ingly thorough Nothing escapes him. ~lis judgment comes sometimes as a shock to the man of slower ways. He does not stop at conventionalities. If a thing is right, it is to be done--and right away. It was notably so with the round- robin in Cuba, asking the government to recall the perishing army When it had won the fight. People shook their heads, and talked of precedents. Precedents! It has been Roosevelt's business to make them most of his time. But is there any- one today who thinks he set that one wrong? Certainly no one who with me saw the army come home. It did not come a day too soon. Roosevelt is no more infallible than the rest of us. Over and over again I have seen him pause when he had decided upon his line of ac- tion, and review it to see where there was a chance for mistake. Finding none. he would issue his order with the sober comment: "There. we have done the best we could. If .there is any mistake we will make it right. The fear of it shall not de- ter us from doing our duty. The only man who never makes a mistake is the man who never does anything." Enforcing #he La~ Referring to Roosevelt's strict en- forcement of the Sunday excise law, the Sa~ Francisco Argonaut's New York correspondent, "Flaneur," wrote under date of September 2, 1895: The law is not a Republican law. It was passed by Tammany, as a means of blackmailing saloonkeepers who refused to yield up tribute. It Is a Democratic law, was introduced at the instigation of Tammany, was passed by a Democratic legislature, and was signed by a Demo- cratic governor, David B. Hill. Senator Hill is now trying to make political cap- ital by abusing Roosevelt for enforcing the law, but he places himself in a very questionable position. When a man is the leader of a party in a state, when his party passes an excise law. and when he himself signs it as governor, he certainly stultifies himself when. to embarrass a political opponent, he fights against tile enforcement of the very law which he himself passed. The opponents of en~,orc- lng the law are having a rather nard time. Nobody denies that the law exists; all that they say is that it is "a hardship to enforce it." But who is to decide on the relative severity or mildness of the laws? Commissioner Roosevelt himself frankly says that he does not believe in such a severe Sunday law, but as it is the law, he is going to enforce It. And he Is certainly doing so. There is a good deal of humor in the American people, and in this great city there are many thousands who are smiling sardonically over the plight of Tammany caus@d by enforcing a Tammany law. For ~Tam- znany's revenues come largely from the blackmailing of liquor saloons. President Roosevelt has been a stu- dent of political economy since boy- hood. He has been an omniverous reader, and has pursued his studies with the same zeal and energy that have characterized all his acts in civil and military life.--San Francisco Ar- gonaut. AWAKENING OF JAPAN REAR ADMIRAL BEARDSLEE TELLS OF NEW NATION That Was First Heseued from Jts Slum- bers by the Perry Expedition--The Building of the Monument at Gora Hama--American Had Been Forgotten. Special Letter. Rear Admiral Beardslee has recently arrived home from Japan, where he devoted much time to promoting the erection of the Perry monument at Gora Hama. As he is the only survivor of the expedition of the American squadron that went to Japan in 1853, under the command of Commodore M. C. Perry, he found it devolving upon him to push public interest in Japan along to the completion of the me- morial. He also made a study of Japanese comditions of today as compared with those of half a century ago. They I~roved gratifying to one remember- ing the day when representatives of America's navy first set foot, against much opposition, on the land where now a monument is raised in their leader's honor. Some" of his observations and con- clusions are set forth in the following letter, together with his account of the unveiling of that monument on the 14th of last July. It was the work of months to get the Japanese interested in the plan; that work meant the raiS- ing of a large sum of money. The way in which it was accomplished is re- lated here. Letter of Adn~lral Beardslee. The first thing that I did after ar- riving in Japan waters was to hunt up the exact place where the landing was made. There it lay, the .quiet Gora Hama, a smoothly curving shore backed by hills and facing the blue water. It recalled that day when, a peaceful welcome having been assured, the Japanese scullers guided the Amer- ican officers into the harbor. Guns boomed then as they boomed the other day when the celebration was held in honor of that early event. Captain Bu- chanan, in command of the early par- ty, was literally the first of them to put foot on shore. I paced the ground there and re- called it all. The~ I mingled among the people and tried to find some rec- ollection of that day. It ~ gone com- pletely from their minds. The place there had not changed es'- REAR ADMIRAL BEARDSLEE. peciallly in those years, except that there was no hostility to the advances made by Americans--no great curios- ity even, for American tourists are by no means rare. But the people in those out of the way places have not taken up European customs as those of the larger cities have They sit on the floor and wear kimonos as' much as ever and give never a thought to chairs and tail- oring. PexlT Forgotten at Germ Hama. It seemed strange enough that I could not come upon old residents, and plenty of them, who remembered Per- ry. But in all the course of my travel- ing in Japan I found almost none upon whom the eommodore's landing seemed to have made any impression. One old man of 90 and his son of 70 appeared before the conclusion of my visit--men who had seen Perry, remembered him clearly and realized what he had done for their nation. They are the two whom you see standing beside the monument. They are both, father and son, fine specimens of Japanese old manhood. Finely knit and erect of car- riage they look many years less than they are. It gratifies me to know that I had a hand in raising that handsome, monu- ment as a memorial. I thought my task was a hopeless 'one when I first set about it. It was a long time before I could arouse any interest in the mat- ter, but at last I contrived to gain the assistance of some influential Japanese. They were of the Beiyu Kyokal, or "American' Friends." Up to that time my talking had been of no avail, although I was received most hospitably, being entertained In princely manner by men of great dis- tinction. My appeals had fallen upon deaf ears. But when the right men took hold of the matter it was hurried along with admirable execution. Hard to Raise Fand~. Even so, the raiMng of funds took nin'e months. The monument cost $25,- 000, which means 50,000 yen to the Jap- anese. This is no small sum to them and it was only by patient colleeting that the thing could be accomplished. Finally the Japanese and American ~overnments assisted in making the celebration at the unvailing a very me- morahle occasion, and all of us who had worked hard for suec~ felt.that 'it has achieved a fitting climax when the 14th of July arrived. There at Gora Hama, in the same waters where Perry's squadron had ar- rived, lay eight .war vessels belonging to the two governments now in such friendly relations. There was no longer any of the suspicious and cautious character shown in their relations that had been in the first place. Instead were open rejoicing and friendliness over a common cause. Torpedo boats were there to help along the celebra- tion. There was a booming of guns and flashing of day fireworks. The splendid monument was unveiled amid the rejoicing of two happy nations. Education Advancing Rapidly. It is delightful to me, now that the Journey is over, to look back upon Japan and see the way that it has grown since my first visit. In the cities education is advancing and broadening at a rapid rate. In many ways the country's civilization is not excelled the world over. Its courtesy and hos- pitality are renowned. An American woman can travel with more safety than in Paris or London. This speaks for itself. Many things are still undeveloped. All will come in time. If Commodore Perry could look upon the result of his mission he surely would find it as grat- ifying as he could desire. L. A. BEARI)SLEE. ABOUT ICEBOATS. In Holland They Are Used for Business Rather Than Pleasure. For hundreds of years past in Hol- land boats have been sailed over the ice on the canals. The Dutchmen use them for business rather than for pleasure. One may often meet in Holland little navies of sledges, loaded with corn, flour or wood, sliding on the ice, with sails set to the wind. For ages, too, ice-boating has been com- mon In Finland. Northern Europe un- doubtedly is the home of the sport. Wealthy men of St. Petersburg sail their ice-boats on the Baltic. On the fiords of Norway and on the great lakes of Sweden one may frequently see the sails of the boats, though lack of wind and abundance of snow make ice-boating there a precarious pastime. England has little chance for enjoying the sport, though attempts have been made to introduce it into the fen dis- trict. Scotland has more chance, and occasionally an iceboat is heard of on one of the frozen lochs. In Switzer- land, at Dares and other places beloved by skaters, ice-boating is keenly culti- vated in winter. A serviceable modern iceboat of best quality costs about $250. The average length of the best all-around craft is about 50 feet and they bear some 1,000 square feet of canvas. They are very frail craft--as one cannot help remembering when traveling at top speed over rough ice-- and weigh about 800 or 900 pounds. Briefly, an iceboat consists of a trian- gular timber framework, with a tall mast rising from the front of thel frame. She runs upon three steel run- ners, the after one set crosswise and, acting as a rudder, all long and curved fore and aft. The rudder skate is turned by a tiller and must naturally: be very sharp to obtain a grip on the ice. To steer an ice yacht is a matter of nerve and practice. A calm disposi- tion and a quick eye are more neces- sary than on a sea yacht, for the slightest touch of the tiller will spin the bOat round. Unless the helm be turned gradually the yachtsmen will find themselves overboard. It is re- markable that an iceboat sails faster than the wind. She does not sall di- rectly before the wind, like a balloon, which consequently can never sail faster than the wind, but she always sails at an angle to the wind's direc- tion and gathers increased speed with every thrust of wind against her sails. There is so little friction that, having gained a certain speed, a forward im- petus received from the wind does not go to maintain that speed but to add to it. Thus It comes about that ice yachts actually overhaul the wind, so that their canvases appear as if driving into its face.--Chicago News. The Eyeless Congo. French Congo is without a French woman, and there is gnashing of teeth in local official eircles. It ap- pears that last year the colony was brightened by the presence of thirteen ladies, wives of Freneh officials, but these soon sickened, and the govern- ment, finding the cost of transport too much, informed its colonial servants that they would not be allowed to take out their wives at the national ex- pense. Now a decree of December, 1897, states that inasmuch as wives' ought to follow their husbands to the colonies, their fares backward and for- ward would be defrayed by the colo- nial office. Therefore the recent gov- ernment order is illegal, and to get over the difficulty the. colonial office will be compelled to send out bachel- ors to the colony.--London Express. Sale Under Void Judgment. If a defendant's property be sold un- oer a void Judgment and execution and he, with legal notice of all the mater- ial facts, receive from the sheriff and retain a portion of the proceeds of the sale, the supreme court of Georgia, in the case of Tutt vs. Roney (39 S. E. Rep., 293), holds that this amounts in law to a ratification and he is bound by the sale. Calendars Caught a Patrom. "~ow did you happen tu In~ure in that particular company? .... I consult- ed the wishes of my wife." *'Of course; that's very praiseworthy. BUt~does she know anything about llfe insuranca companies?" "Yes. She investigated and found that this one always iuuu the prettiest calendars.'--t~nd~ Tit- Bits.