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The Saguache Crescent
Saguache , Colorado
November 14, 1901     The Saguache Crescent
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November 14, 1901

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i * R[LI(S 0[ AN(lENT BABYLON A cable message from Berlin to the New York Sun reports a discovery of interest to Bible students as well as antiquarians. It reports that Dr. Kol- devey and his party, who are excavat- ing on the site of ancient Babylon, have uncovered walls which they be- lieve to have been ~art of the palacs of Nebuchadnezzar. One of the walls is faced with glazed tiles, which seem to have wonderfully withstood the rav- ages of time, and are artistically or- namented with flowers and tracery. In the courtyard near the wall were also found several bricks, evidently part of a mosaic pavement, the design of which was composed of enamels and glass-raised work. Among their other finds in the courtyard were coffins, coins, stone utensils, and fragments , of stone inscriptions. Dr. Koldevey considers the recent finds as fully proving that this part of the city con- " tained the finest of the Babylonian palaces, doubtless that of Nebuchad- nezzar. Meanwhile, excavations are being carried on' in the business quar- ter of old Babylon, where the Arabs found the entire bt~slness documents of the Babylonish firm "Egibi & Son" --possibly the oldest house of business of whlch the worl t holds record. These documents included unpaid bills, day- books, ledgers, etc. They were made of hardened clay, and the wonder is that they had not crumbled away dur- ing the course of the centuries. This found to be true as to the world at large. The world o~er, c~nd~es are usd by miners in gold, silver and copper mines. Candes are bu:ned in chinches, and they constitute a part of the un- dertaker's supplies. Candles are burned on ships. Butchers use them in their ice boxes. Brewers find use for them, as plumbers do, also. They are used in coach lamps, and for table ornamentation. Can~les for Christmas trees are sold yearly to the number of many millions. Candles are still used, too, for the ordinary purposes of do- mestic lighting. "I various foreign countries, despite the w0rld-wide introduction of petro- leum and electricity, you will find candles in wider use for ordinary lighting purposes than here. You would find in some countries candles used In hotels, and you would find places where candles are used in street lamps. "Candles are made nowadays in al- most endless variety. The fancy can- dles are made in various sizes and in dlfferent shapes; as cylindrical and tapering, straight-sided and moulded into various forms, and sometimes with ornaments attached to them, and they are made in many colors and shades of colors, and many of these candles are artistic and beautiful. Candles are made nowadays most largely of stearic acid and adamantine, these two materials being both pro- NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S PALACE. (From a restoration Suggested by the Ground Plan and Excavations.) discovery shows how literally the prophecies against Babylon have been fulfilled.--Christian Herald. DISTRIBUTION OF NEGROES. In I$ome Southern $tmtes They Are Be- coming Very Numerous, The result of the last census shows that, taking the whole country togeth- er, the colored population is not in- creasing at a rate greater than the white, and that the fears formerly ex- pressed in this regard were quite groundless. In some states, however, the colored people are becoming dis- proportionately numerous--in. South Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi. Geor- gia and Arkansas, for example. The census brings out two main tendencies. The first is the gradual concentration of the blacks in certain regions and the second is their con- centratlon in cities. City llfe Is very hazardous for the negro race, as the colored people llve in unsanitary dwel- lings and under poor conditions. In Chicago, for example, more than 14,000 negroes are huddled together, and here, as in many other cities of the North. the negroes conStitute an undue proportion of the criminal class. The fertility of the blacks is greater than that of the whites, but their mortality is much greater also. so that their increase is considerably less, Taking ten of the largest cities of the South it appears that the mor- tality of the blacks is 32 per 1,000, and of the whites only ~,0, ~nd there are indications that the .former mor- tality is increasing, not diminishing. Five counties in Virginia now in- habited by 69,000 blacks and 52,000 whiles produce today 12,000,000 pounds of tobacco, instead of 32,000,000, their former yield. Four counties of Ken- tucky, inhabited by 81,000 whites and 5.500 blacks, have. on the other hand, increased the yield from 90,000 to 10,- 000,000 pounds in the same period. In the whole of Virginia, where the blacks constitute 38 per cent of the population, the tobacco crop has fallen from 121.000.000 to 48,000,000 pounds in the last thirty years; in Kentucky, where the blacks constitute 14 per cent it has risen from 108,000,000 to 221,000,000. Rice culture in South Carolina and Georgia is subject to similar losses owing to the uncer- tainty of negro 4abor. The cotton culture is passing into the hands of the whites, before the civil war this crop was entirely raised by black la- bor, while at present 40 per cent is raised by whites. From 1891 to 1895 there was no increase in the holdings of land by the blacks in Virginia, and . the 'same is probably true for other southern states. DANDLES NOT OBSOLETE. There ~ M~U ~nv ~ses ~or the Fllek- e~ng IAght. "Candles going out!" said a candle Lreanu~aeturer. "Oh, no. There are candles sold in the United States now than ten years ago, and I don't doubt that the same thing would be ducts with a basis of tal.'ow, treated by refinement, pressure and other pro- cesses; they are now made largely of paraffins, and they are made also of beeswax and spermaceti and of tallow. And there are competition candles made of a combination of materials." PHOTOGRAPHING- SOUND, The invention of the telegraphone, says the Electrical Review, seems to have stimulated re~ear~h upon the pos- sibilities of reproducing sounds. Among the various methods of making records of sound vibrations none is more accurate or s-nsitive than that employing photography, but hitherto nQ method of reproducing sounds from these records has been described. In a German mechanical Journal, Herr E. Ruhmer describes a method of astonishing originality and beauty. He photographs u~on a continuous' moving roll of sen~_itlve film a "speak- ing arc," or arc containing a telephone transmitter circuit in shunt, ~nd repro- duces the sound by projecting light through this fi~m on a selenium cell in circuit with a telephone receiver and a battery. Of course, every variation produced in the transmitter circuit and affecting the light emanating from the arc is photographed as alternate shadings and lightenings on the film, and these light variations impinging upon the sensitive seltneum cause corresponding fluctuations in its resistance and repro- duce the sound in the re~iving tele- phone with great accuracy. It is stat- ed that the reproduction of sensitive- nas~ and clearness is superior to that rendered by the Poulsen telegraphone. As the film can be made very long v~thout reaching a considerable weight, it possesses great portability, and has advantages owr either the wax cylinder or tl~e cross magnetized steel wire. Another strk!ng advan- tage is found in the fact that any de- sired number of r;productions can easily and cheaply be made from the original film. Crescous' Costly l~trl~css. The quarter boots of the famous trotting-horse Cresceus cost about $10, ~hin boots $14, knee and ar-u extvn- stun $25. The bind ~hin. vpeedy cut and hock extension, with curb joint proiection, cost $50 .a set "The two- minute harness of itself costs but about $25, yet the main harness costs over $100. Cresceus' reins cost at. least $50 a pair, The first great drought on record happened in 678 and the two succeed- ing years, when, according to the rec- ords, there was practically no rainfall in England. In 879 the springs in Eng- land were dried up and it was impos- sible for men to work in the open air. In 998 and. 994 the n~ts on the tre~ were "roasted as if in an Oven." There are three telephone circuits between New York ,and Atlanta, TWO KINDS OF "DUTCHMEN," One Known to Architects and One Policemen. The Presence of several "Dutchmen" on the customs house building, near the roof, attract d the other day the ,attention of a small but interested group of observers, says the Philadel- phia Ledger. I was passing at the time and overheard one man say to another, pointing at the same time with his finger: "There they are, right above that cornice." I was not particularly curious, but a few feet further on I inquired of a boy who had just come from the scene as to the nature of the trouble, if there was any, and he told me that one of the men had said that there were a couple of Dutchn~en up there. I retraced my steps and looked intently for the gen- tlemen from Holland, but couldn't see anything on or near the r~ef, and, as the men were still gazing at the build- ing, I Ventured to ask about any per- son being seen on the edifice. The man whom I addressed I found to be a well known achite~t, and he replied that he was merely pointing out to a visiting member of the craft sevenal "Dutchmen" in some of the larger blocks of marble. ; "You see," he said, when a con- tractor receives a large piece of mar- ble containing a flaw, he hates to sac- rifice the whole piece on that account, and so he d~ftly lnse~ts a plug in the place, the same as a patch, and when it is properly smoothed over no one but an expert can tell it. In time, howeyer, the lines of the plug or 'Dutchman,' as it is called, can easily be seen, just as you can see those two men up there," he said, pointing to the spot. I certainly felt enlightened. By the way, policemen sometimes use an- other kind of "Dutchman." When at night they discover the door of a build- in~ not locked, they nail a little piece of wood on the back of the door, a foot or so from the floor, and another piece on the floor, say an equal distance from the bottom of ti~e door. Then a board is obtained, one end of which is placed against the cleat which has been made on the floor, while the other, end rests' loosely against the back of the door. When e~erything is ready the policeman gently pulls the door to, the board slips under the cleat, and the place is so securely locked that when the occu- pant comes the next morning he must either break in the door or get a lad- der and enter in that vPay. So much for the handy uses of Dutchmen, and there may be others. IMMORTAL RAPHAEL. He Could Never Be Induced to do Poor Job. Raphael, the artist, wa~ so consci- entious in everything he did that he could not be induced to do anything half-way, even for temporary use. His famous "Sistine Madonna," which has been the admiration of the World, and which the great art critics of the cen- tury have classed among the few mar- velous pictures in existence, was painted for temporary use---for a ban- ner to be carried at the head of a pro- cession. Millions of dollars would not buy this banner today, because Ra- phael put the best of genius into it; he put immortality into it, because he painted it just as well as he knew how, even though it was for temporary use. And today, in Rome, even in the cor- ners of the Vatican, high up on the ceiling where no one is supposed to ever look for its existence, the traveler finds the same exquisite touch, the same perfection of finish as Jn his great masterpieces. Everything Ra- phl~el did, he did for immortality; half- done work cannot be found in any of his pictures. It would take ~any mil- lions of dollars to buy his works to- day, not only because he transferred his genius to the canvass, in a master- ly way, but because the minutest de- tail is finished with the same exqui- site pains as attended the chief fig- ures. A Female Card Shark. A lady, who is a professional teach- er o~ card playing, constantly travels by rail between Nice and Monte Carlo endeavoring to gain pupils for her sys- tem, and has been ejected from Mon- aco, as she invariably causes scen~s in the saloons. She, however, asser~ that the doors of these place are closed to her as the directors are afraid:she will break the bank: Fre- quently she arrives by train at Monte Carlo, but is invariably put Into the next retNrn train. Yet she has many pupils, to whom she writes daily, giv- ing advice as to colors and numbers. F~ll~re of Russian Crops, Famine on an extensive scale is cer- tain In Russia, in consequence of one of the most serious failures of crops in most parts of the empire ever known. The crops have been scorched up in many districts by hot drought, and in others they have been injured by storms. Apart from Siberia, it is said, the southwest is the only divi- sion in which a fair harvest is being reaped, and even there many cases of almost entire destruction are no- ticed. Unless the report is exaggerat- ed, it is probable that the exportation of wheat will be prohibited. ]~eneh Motor Carriaf~ ~d Cyele~. I~zt year there were registered in 'Paris somewhat over 5,000 motor car- rlages and about 11,000 motor cycles, the latter comprising motor bicycles, motor tricycles and the like. Practi- cally all of the French automobiles have been of the internal-combustion type. An oil tank holding !~60,000 galloxls has been built in San Francisco for storing off fuel for the usa of the street railway comlmnl~m. ,i The f ore[ n Amba radvr at Con fantinople. AMBASSADORS OF THE POWERS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. M. CONSTANS. SIR NICHOLAS O'CONNOR ~i. SINOWYEW. (France.) (Great Britain.) (Russia.) ~IGNOR P~tUSA. BARON M. CALICE. BARON VON MARSHALL. (Italy.) The issue at Constantinople is sim- ply this: Russia's march toward the Persian gulf is blocked by Turkey. Russia's ally, France, has a claim against the Sultan, who is short pf finances. He cannot borrow the money from his old friend, the Emperor of Germany. William is an ally with Russia and France. England is hard- up. Yet if the French claim is paid Austro-Hungary.) cannot afford to see the Russia t bear proceed farther south. In that case, the great Indian empire would be at stake. In the meantime British diplomats are endeavoring to~ersuade the world that Russia and France are merely en- deavoring to terminate the alleged in- fluence of Germany at Constantinople. If Germany could be persuaded to this M. BAPST. (Germany.) (Charge d'Affaires, French Embassy.) ally in William. But Germany is in no humor to take any such view. Ger- many's future prospects depen4s on the friendship of France and Russia and not that of England. Therefore the little claim of two French citizens may fan the flames of a fire that might become a world con- flagration. The diplomats at Constantinople it must come from England. Britain view Britain would have a valuable have a different situation to deal with. REAR ADMIRAL CROWNINSHIELD OF THE U. S. NAVY. fee-simple title to a strip of land two CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF NAVIGATION, WHO IS CREDIT]KD WITH A LARGE MEASURE OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR ATTACKS MADI~ UPON ADMIRAL SCHLEY'S RECORD. I ...... WAY. carry troops and mu .o= war " through the canal provided said The denouncing by the Nicaragua I government of the canal treaty act troops and munitions of'war were not I of 1898 is not an unfriendly act. The lformal expression of a desire for a conclusion of that convention veils no hostility to the United States. Theac- - tion of the Nicaragua government pre- cipitates no new complications, offers no excuse for delay on the part of congress, and indicates no opposition to the immediate construction of the Nicaragua canal by the United States. The treaty between the United States and Nicaragua negotiated in 1867 and ratified June 20. 1868, granted to the United States the right of tran sit between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the territory of Nica- ragua. A canal constructed on any route decided upon was to be used upon equal terms by both republics, Nicaragua, however, reserving ~ts right of sovereignty over the canal. The United States, under the treaty, was to extend protection to the canal, to guarantee "the neutrality and in- nocent use of the same, and to employ its influence with other nations tO induce them to guarantee such neu- trality and protection.'" The United States was at liberty, on giving notice to the government of Nicaragua, to to be employed against Central Am- erican nations friendly to Nicaragua. Troops for the protection of the canal were to be furnished by Nicaragua. It will be seen that this treaty is as obsolete as the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, ratified in 1850. We are making every effort now to secure the abrogation of tbe Clayton-Bulwer treaty that the United States may construct the Nica- raguan canal and hold it forever un- der American control. Why should we not abrogate in the same spirit the theaty with Nicaragua? The treaty of 1868 is not applicable to construc- tion of the canal under the plans con- templated by congress. It limits our action, it rpledges US toga neutral canal, which we do not want, and it does not give us control. In 1884 a treaty was negotiated be- tween Nicaragua and the United States in which the United States government should construct, op- erate, and maintain exclusive con- trol over a ship can;~l to be construct- ed on Nicaraguan territory. Nicara- gua was to accord the United States an exclusive right of ,way across her territory from sea to sea, to grant a and a half miles broad all along the route. Upon its completion the cana was to belong to Nicaragua and the United States jointly. That treaty was not ratified, but it indicated tl~e spirit of Nicaragua, and there is no doubt that the present government is prepared to negotiate at once a new treaty to meet the de- mand for an American canal under American control, Nicaragua is not putting obstacles in our path, but is clearing the way. COURTESY TO THE PRESS. Two lovers who together brought their lives to an end at Reading showed a prevision as happy as it is extraordinary. They left photographs behind them for the newspapers, and we notice that several of our contem- poraries which illustrate their pages have gratefully availed themselves of the opportunity to present to their readers the faces of the hero and hero- ine of this "double tragedy." If those who are about to leap Niagara in bar- rels, to cross the sea in small shallops, or to seek that destructlolu in what- ever guise it be which cometh not without publicity were generally to ob- serve this precaution, says the Phila- delphia Times, it would facilitate the work of properly showing them the last honors of earth. SOUTHERN BELLE TO WED. Miss Frances Coleman, the noted belle of Halifax, Va., is soon to be married to Roger Williams of New York. The plans for ,the wedding are all lald, and after the ceremony the couple will sail for Europe on the Kai- ser Wilhelm. Miss Coleman is one of. the most celebrated of the South's beautiful women and prominent in so- MISS FRANCES COLEMAN. clety. Mr. Will~m~ ~ well known i~ New York~