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November 28, 1901     The Saguache Crescent
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November 28, 1901
 

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I . the orld OLD ROUTE NEW ROUTE MAPS SHOWING OLD AND NEW ROUTES FROM AUSTtbALIA TO LONDON. The mails for England from her col- ony of :kustralia, on the other side of the globe, are now being carried through the United States, as an ex- periment. Transported by water and land by way of the Suez canal and Brlndfsl the Journey to London from Melbourne takes thirty-six days. By taking the other direction and c,~mlng by way of San Francisco and ~ew York the time has been shortened greatly. On the first trip, which be- gan in August, the time by way of the railroads from the Pacific to the At- lantic coast was thlrty-one and a half days. On the second trial, just com- pleted, the time has been further shortened. The entire distance from Melbourne to London by way" of the American continent is 15,265 miles, or more than half way round the world. This beats Phineas Fogg's time by a wide margin. While Jules Verne's hero circled the globe in eighty days, the Journey at the rate of speed reach- ed by the Australian mails taking the American route could be made in about fifty days. Of course under both plans railroad have been utilized wherever available. But when Rus- sia's great railroad, the one from Mos- cow to Port Arthur, on the gulf ol~ Pe- chl-li, ls finished, the globe clcuit can be made in much shorter time than this. The report sent out to all the papers the other day that Russia's trans-Slberianroad was "virtuallycom- pleted" is misleading. Some of the course between Moscow and Vladtvo- tok is by water and a large part of the railway was only temporary and experimental, and will have to be relald. Troops can be carried from Russia through to Vladivostok by the :~resent rail and steamboat route across Siberia, but the time will be much slower than that which is in- tended to be attained ulimately. More- over, Port Arthur, and not Vladivos- tok, will be the real terminus of the trans-Siberian road,-and that appar- ently will not be finished for two or three years yet. Until Russia's great line to Port Arthur is finished the quickest course for England's Australian mails will probably continue to be by way of San Francisco and New York. on the ex- perimental route now being taken. This course, too, will be the speediest way for the entire globe circuit. Even when the trans-Siberlan line is finish- ed the roads across the United States continent will have to be ulllzed in order to make the circuit by the speed- iest route. It will then be possible to make the journey round the earth in thirty-one days by having close con- nections. How some of the old-time girdlers would marvel if they could hear of this speed! Two years was considered fairly good time for the circuit in the days of Capt. Cook and of the Yankee skipper, Robert Gray-- the Gray, whose vessel, the C~olumbia, gave its name to the great river of Oregon. and whose discovery of that stream gave the United States its first claim to the vast empire which it drains. Two years and a half would have been thought fast time for the circuit by Drake, the first Englishman who made the Journey. The crew of the Portuguese-Spaniard Magellan-- the Magellan who was killed in the Philippines in the feud between the whites and natives of those islands which has stretched from his time down to Agulnaldo's--who were the first of mankind who crossed all the meridians, were three years in making the journey round the earth. Thirty- six months in the early part of the six- teenth century! One month in the opening years of the twentieth! This marks the extent of the shortening of the time of the globe-circling between Magellan's days and the days of Am- erlca's and Russia's Morgans, Harri- roans and Hills. The new mail service crosses the United States over the tracks of only two railroads and that without change of cars--the Great Northern and the New York Central GiDdan ic ailroad Combine Minnesota's executive has issued a statement, saying he will instruct the attorney general of the state to take steps to prevent the consolidation of Northern Pacific and Great Northern Interests, as contemplated by the / Northern Securities company, Just In- corporated, and that if there Is no law to cover the case he will call a special session of the legislature to make one. Governors of Montana and Dakotas have taken similar action. THE WILKINS-FREEMAN AFFAIR. The wise people of Randolph, Mass., and the curious people of Metuchen, N. J., and numerous other people betWeen those two towns seem to have consid- erable difficulty in getting Mary E. Wilklns and Dr. Freeman married. It is not wholly clear why any one should concern himself or herself about what is a purely private arrange- ment between the high contracting parties, but so many persons have con- sidered it their duty to bring about the marriage that it may be said near- ly all of New England and a large part of New York and New Jersey have been engaged for#several months past in fixing and unfixing the dates when the event was to come off, and some who can see through a millstone farther than others have even des- cazited on the bride's trousseau and the bridegroom's gifts. At last the gossips, tired of this game of hide and seek, positively an- nounced two or three diiys ago that ~he marriage had taken place and that the happy pair had settled down at ~et,~-~hma~ that Miss Wtlklns had fin- ished the novel which had all along been the cause of delay; and that Dr. Freeman, who is wealthy, was the happiest man in or out of New Jersey, was going to give up pulling and fitting teeth, and hereafter enjoy his "ease and dignity," which few bene- dicts can do. I The Navy's Demands. [ A naval programme which contem- t plates a large increase in the naval es- tablishment has been enthusiastically accepted by the American public, so that there will be little demurring to toe general spirit of Secretary Long's annual report. But it is not so certain that the sec- retary decided wisely between the plans of the general board of which Admiral Dewey ls~ chairman and the plans of the board of construction, The former called for four battle ships, two armored cruisers, four pick- et boats,~ six gunboats of 1,000 tons each, SIX gunboats of 600 tons, and six of 200 tons, ~ix training ships and one collier of 10,000 tons; the latter ?~r three battle ships, two armored cruis- ers, eighteen gunhoats, two colliers of 15,000 tons each. one repair ship, six training ships, four picket boats and four tugs. The secretary did well to drop a good part of the overnumerous gunboats, but he also dropped one of the battle ships proposed in the first- named scheme, and this omission can- not be so '.eadily commended. Perhaps Our Oldest Man. James Farrell, of BarbourvUle, W. Vs., has Just celebrated the 105th an- niversary of his birth. He is now pos- sibly the oldest man in the United States. Mr. Farrell served in the war of 1812 and later was in Mexico un- der Jefferson Davis. When the war between the states broke out he en- listed, although no longer a young man, and saw four years of service. He was probably the oldest veteran to offer his services to the govern- ment when the Spanish war broke OUt. Owing to temporary illness, Deputy Police Commissioner Devery of New York was absent from his usual haunts a day or two shortly after the recent overthrow of Tammany. Some humorist advertised for him in the "lost and found" column of an after- noon paper. In the description Mr. Devery is said to have a "gross ton- nage of about 225 pounds," a haughty carriage and to be of "a full h/tbit." John Armstrong Chanler has about deci~led to reside permanently on his estate, Merrie Mills, in Virginia, one of his reasons being, as he explains it, that Judge Whlte's decision that he is sane is of no legal force in New York. Mr. Chanler's change in ap- pearance and his gaining of flesh and color is ascrlbed to his giving up the use of wine and becoming a vegetarian. Carrie' Nation the other evening lec- tured to a large audience In Marietta, O., under the direction Of H. J. Con- rath, a saloonkeeper, and Joe Bruner, a pugilist. In answer to criticisms on her appearance under such manage- ment Mrs. Nation said: "Neither the W. C. T U. nor .the churches would. bring me here, but ~hsse men did, and I am grateful to them." The czar, before qttlttlng France, left a gift of 100,000 francs for the poor of Paris, 15,000 francs for Dun- kirk, 15,000 francs for Reims and 15,- 000 francs .for Compeigne and also a sum of 5,000 francs, for the families of sufferers in the recent to'rpedo ex-~ plomton. o . MI ASURE STAR.LIGHT (Cambridge, Mass., Letter.) with the Merl San Pho eter Dur g in cated by a couple of anecdotes. A One of the most important and inter- the Years 1879-1882"--a massive eel- money lender once advanced him $20, }stlng departments of astronomy~as ume giving a list of 4260 stars in the for which, first and last, he paid $1,000. ell as one of the least known popu- northern sky visible to the naked eye This person, he says, became so much larly--is the measurement and record- in the latitude of Cambridge, and in- attached to him as to pay a daily visit ing of the comparative magnitude of tended to include all stars not fainter at his office and exhort him to be the stars--a task which has been car- than the sixth magnitude between the punctual. "These visits were very fled on, doubtless, since the beginning North Pole and thirty degrees south of terrible and can hardly have been of }f astronomical science. In this reck- the celestial equator. To this original service to me in the office." This mild Dning of magnitude, which is known list another, Volume XXIV. of the remark applies also to the visits from t8 photometry--the measurement, that Annals, has since been added. Tech- the mother of a young woman in the ~, of starlight--it is interesting to nically such a piece of work is called a country who had fallen in love with ~ote that an American astronomical Uranometria or catalogue of "naked- him and to whom he "lacked the ~stabllshment stands among the first, eye stars. The mmilar work produc_- pluck to give a decided negative." The if not as the very first in the world ed by Professor Prltchard at Oxford, m,,',. ...... ., ......... ~,~, ~ ~,oo~,o, photometry having been for years one for example containing the magnl- , on her arm and an immense bonnet ~f the principal subjects taken up by tudes of 2,784 stars thus observed,, was u~onn h~r~ head ..... .rid inn,,tr_~ 1_- _~ lou_d '.he Harvard Observatory, both in entitled."Uranometria Nova Oxonien- voice before all his, companions, ~ambridge and at Arequipa Peru and sis " The Harvard Uranometria was so ,, ' , , . - ..... Anthony Trollope when are you go. ~he results of the work which it has etaoorate ann so accurately cone tha~ ' ~. . mg to marry my daughter." No won- tccomplished having been accepted as it has been practically accepteu every- he h,~ . der that _~ was miserable; _~ was standard all over the world wnere and the magnitude of all new __^,~.~,.._ .~_~.. __~ ^.. ..... ,.,^ .~ The.first star catalogue giving 108~ stars given on zne rtarvaro scale. A .-. ~^. ~ ~ .... ~.. ~.^.^.~ ~.~ .... t. ,tars, was published by Hipparchus in striking illustration of the use to hPeYsa;s an~'he~at~d hT;l~dle;es;."he the year 125 B. C, It has come down which it is now put occurred last quarreled with his superiors who for which, first and last. he paid $1,000. _ to us through Ptolemy of Alexandria, who nearly 300 years later, in 140 A. D., produced his "Metals Syntaxis"-- the "Almagest" of the Arabian and Moorish astronomers--which, either |lrectly or through the corrected cata- logue that was based on it by the Per- ~lan astronomer, Abd-al-rahman ai- 3ufl, was the world's standard until Ulugh Bleigh brought out a new cata- logue at Samaracand about 1450 A. D. rhe famous catalogue of Tyeho Brahe --the last of the mediaeval or the first ~f the modern astronomers--in 1580, was the last important catalogue pro- ~uced without the aid of the telescope. Htpparchus and Ptolemy arranged the stars in six classes, the first class ~omprlsing the brightest~about twen- ty in all--while the sixth class con- tained those which could just be made ~ut by the naked eye. After the tele- scope came into general use magni- tudes were extended downward as ~ainter stars were brought into view by the increasing power of the instru- ments employed. For many years such astronomer used his own scale, Herschel at the Cape of Good Hope es- spring when the new star appeared in the constellation Perseus. Among the observers who gave their results on the Harvard scale were NiJland and Gyllenskold of Sweden, Pereira of the Portuguese observatory in the Azores, the staffs of the British Astronomical Association and the Astronomical So- ciety of France and the officers of the Radcliffe Observatory at Oxford, as well as practically all American as- tronomers. As would be supposed, it takes a trained eye to notice the finer differ- ences in star magnitudes. On the modern scale a first magnitude star would be expressed as ranging from 0.50 to 1.50, a second magnitude star from 1.50 to 2.50, and so on. For in- stance, Castor, which was measured as 1.56 in the "H. P.." would be called of the second magnitude~ while its twin star, Pollux, the brighter of the Gemini, is a first magnitude star. measured as 1.12. The Pole Star itself is a star of the second magnitude, its measurement being 2.15. The six brighter stars in the Pleiades are all of the second and third magnitudes, as thought him hopelessly incapable, and felt that he was sinking "to the lowest pits." At last he heard of a place in the Irish postoffice, which everybody despised, and was successful on apply- ing for it. because his masters were so glad to get rid of him. At the same time. they informed his new superior that he would probably have to be dla- missed on the first opportunlty.~Na- tional Review. HOW THE CHINESE GET RAIN. Peculiar Practices in Vogu~ In t~$ Celesti&l Kingdom. Jt is one of the peculiarities of the Chinese that, while they have develop- ed elaborate philosophies, none ~f them has led to any confidence in the uniformity of nature. Neither the people nor their rulers have any fixed opinion as to the causes of raln-fall. The plan in some provinces when the need of rain is felt Is to borrow a god from a neighboring district and peti- tion him for the desired result. If his answer is unsatisfactory he is returned OBSERVING END OF HARVARD'S LARGEST PHOTOMETER, SHOWING AND THE ~ABLE AT WHICH THE ASSISTANT TAKES DOWN pecially using very high numbers--a tendency that has been so reduced since his time that his twentieth mag- nitude is very nearly the fourteenth ~n~he scale now generally employed. This scale more closely corresponds with that of Argelander, the great Ger- man author of the "Durehmusterung" ~r catalogue of the stars in the north- ern heavens, which enumerates over 824,000 stars, the largest number yet catalogued. Each magnitude, of course, has its typical stars to which the others may be conveniently referred. The stars which do not exactly correspond in magnitude with a typical star are ex- pressed in fraction4il terms of the I nearest magnitudes, decimals being usually employed, although Ptolemy and even Argelander used thirds. Em- ploying the decimal system, a star of. 5.4.magnitude will be a shade brighter than a star of 5.5 and so on. An ex- ception is that certain stars, such as Arcturus and Sirius, and the planet Jupiter when at its brightest, are more than a magnitude brighter than stars of the first magnitude, Aldebar- an. for example, and are therefore ex- pressed in "negative magnitudes," that is to say, they are preceded by the minus sign. Jupiter, for instance, ap- proaches almost the second negative magnitude---mint's 2"q)r is sixteen times brighter than a star of the first magnitude. It i's significant of the great'accom- plishment of American astronomy that Ihere was no universally accepted sys- tem of photometry until the publica- tion of what is now known as, the Harvard Photo:netry~--the "H. P.," as it is familiarly called by astronomers. rhts was contained in volume XIV. of the Annals oU .the' Harvard 0bserva* tory, under the title of "O~servattons are those in the Dipper. The upper star of the two "pointers" in the Dtpper~that is to say the star on the lip opposite the han- dle--has a measurement of 1.96 in the Harvard Photometry. The pointer be- low has a measurement of 2,60, which would carry it into the third magni- tude. The other bottom star of the Dipper has a measurement Of 2.56, and the star at the Junction of the handle approaches the fourth magnitude, hav- ing a measurement of only 3.41, while the star next to it draws near the first magnitude, with a measu~rement of 1.85, The next star in the Dipper, the second from the end. is really a double star, but the measurement ofthe two together gives 2.38, while the ei~d star of all is almost a typical second mag- nitude star, having a measurement of 2.02. ANTHONY TROLLOPE'S YOUTH. Illqk Unpromising Outlook While Work- log as a Postofltce Clerk. Anthony Trollope's start in life was unpro~aislng. As he knew no lan- guages, ancient or modern, he became classical usher at a school in Brussels, with the promise of a commission in the Austrian army. Then he was sud- denly transferred to a clerkship in the London postoffice. He was disquali- fied for the new po~itlon by general ignorance and special incapacity for the simplest arithmetic. A vague threat that he must pass an examina- tion was forgotten before it was put into execution, and Trollope charact~er- Istieally takes occasion to denounce the system of competitive examination by whlch he would have b~en excluded. Meanwhile he was turned loose in London, and' attempted to Hve a gen* tleman on $4~0 'a year, The results are THE HOOD FOR THE OBSERVER THE MEASUREMENTS. to his home "with every mark of honor: otherwise he may be put out l~ the sun. as a hint to wake up and do his duty. Abunch of ,willow lw usually thrust into his hand as will be sensitive to moisture.. Another plan in extensive use is the building ~ special temples in which are wells c~n- talnlng several iron tablets. When there is a scarcity of rain a messenger starts out with a tablet, marked with the date of the Journey and the name of the district making the petition. Arriving at another city he pays a sum of money and is allowed to draw a new tablet from the ~ell, throwing in his own by way of exchange. On the return Journey he is supposed to eat only bran and travel at top speed day and night. Prayers are umlally made in the fifth and sixth months when the rainfall is always due, aml a limit of ten days is set for their effec- tive operation. Under such eondltitms rain usually falls during the pre- scribed time. When pra~ers are In progress the umbrella, among other objects, comes under the ban. In~ some provinces foreigners are mobbed for carrying this harinless article at that time.--Detroit Free Press. Vicious Politics Affect the' ~ltoolL In the large Cities of this eountr~ there are more than 10;000 children who cannot receive the benefitS of the public schools because theban'are not enough buildings. Even "BostOn, the best equipped of " Amerf~&h -cities, needs 27 more build|ng~.:':~l~G sho~'ing in al~ cities this fall is "~b~se =than ever. The not kept pace wrth th~ It as Poll-