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December 4, 1930     The Saguache Crescent
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December 4, 1930
 

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THE SAGUACHE CRESCENT i i ]i lilt , i iU ii What i hr,,i s tt~riK, t4#lr i~&t, 4 By ELMO SCOTT WATSON ~HAT is Christmas without a Christmas tree? Not mucb of ' *a day, every one will agree, for the absence of this em- blem of Christmas would mean that something very es- sential to our Yuletide cele- bration would be lacking. Yet bow many of us give any thought to this very necessary part of our Christ- mas celebration--how many are used every year, wi~ere they come from. who gets them for as, are there different varieties of evergreens, Is the cutting of Christmas trees a factor in tile deple- tion of our forests, against which, we are constant- ly being warned, and a dozen other interesting questions which readily come to mind. Some of those questions can be answered brief- ly. but others require more extended explanation. As for the number requlred~to fill our Christmas needs. It Is in the nel~h.borhoed of six million trees annually. The trees which find greatest fa- vor in the East come from Nova Scotia. One- fourth to one-half of the trees used in the North and East come from New England and New York while the Middle West draws small quaatitJes from MinnesOta. Wisconsin and Michigan. Can- ada, however, is the largest contributor of Christ. mas trees and supplies well over half the total quantity used, In common with other Christmas preparations the~harvestlng of Christmas trees begins Ioag be- fore shoppers have begun their worrying about gtfta. Most of the trees sel~! in the larger cities are cut In the forest depths and hauled forty or fifty miles to the nearest railroad. Operations must be completed before snowdrifts block the forest trails and render them Impaseable~ Hundreds of men labor for almost a month be- fore Christmas eve unloading, sorting and'dls- tributing trees to the millions who want them. New York alone requires 400 to 500 carloads of trees annually,; Chicago uses 200 to 250 carloads and "Philadelphia-dlmut the same amount. Other large tenters like Boston. Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and Detroit require from 100 to 200 carloads each, A car contains about 1,800 trees. The annual bill for Christmas trees and other greens such as ho|ly and mistletoe Is a tremen- dous one. Conservatively estimated, at least ten million dollars Is spent for the family Christmas tree with Its attendant holly wreaths sad sprays of mistletoe. As for the question of the cut of Christmas trees depleting our forests, let a forestry expert answer, as was done in a recent issue of the Nature Magazine by Albert A. Hansen. thus: "A question that ls brought up every Christ- mas seUon by the conservative conservationists Is the restriction of the use of trees tn the inter- of forest conservation.+ It Is true that in order to meet the annual demand somewhere in the neighborhood of six million trees are needed. but whea the facts are looked at In proper per- spective no one need hesltat~ In celebrating the Christmas season+by a custom that has been h,nded down from generation to generation since the days when our pagan ancestors gathered around the blazing Yule log. "In the first place, most of our Christmas trees are the result of thinning heavy stands of ever- greens that a~ actually improved by this process. Nature. you know, Is so lavish that there are practically always more trees present than can possibly mature. "Mtho~gh wise foresters have no sympathy with the Joy-killing and tll-lnformed conserva- tionist wile advocates a treeless Christmas, they are heartily In accord with the movement to regulate the trade to prevent the annual waste represented by the wholesale destruc~tion of trees to bolster up the prices on overstocked markets. a waste that has been estimated during some sea- sons to reach the appalling total of 25 per cent of the entire supply. There should be some way of ascertaining market demands or else of dlspos- t0g of the surplus to needy families that can Ill afford to buy their own trees. 1. Ex-President and Mrs. Coolidge beside the great living Christmas tree around which the com. munity celebration in the National Capital centers on Christmas ave. 2. Workers tying up bundles of Christmas trees which have been out down in the Maine foreste to prepare for the coming Christmas uasen. 3. Even "Old Dobbin" hae his Christmas teeeI Mrs. M. R. Blumenberg, vice president of the Animal Rescue league in Washington, is shown with two "guests" at the annual Christmae party and "dinneP' given by the league. ribboned presents? It Is one of the most beautiful symbols of Christendom and every home should have*one. Instead of 6.000.1D0 let us have 30.000,- 000 Christmas trees--one for every family. Let the season that celebrates the birth of Him who loved little children bring to each hens# where children dwell the decorated tree that means so much In their lives." As for the different kinds of evergreens used for Christmas trees, there are many which caa be obtained for this purpose, but there are sev- eral which are definite favorites for this impor- tant annual role. The "aristocrats:' are the firs, mainly because of their fine pyramidal shape. beautiful deep green color and soft fragrant needles which do not shed easily after the tree begins to dry. These trees can usually be recognized by the fact that the flattened leaves are arranged in two rows on the horizontal branches, due to the twist- ing of the leaf base. Each needle is a shiny dark green above and except for the prominent mid- rib is silvery white underneath, due to the multi- tude of breathing pores on the under surfaces. The species of fir available vary with the lo- cality, but the most popular kind offered in the East" Is the balsam fir, the bark of which yields the well known Canada balsam used-In medicines and pe2fumes. In the southet'n states the Fraser fir or she balsam, very similar to the northern balsam fir, is common on the market, while on the Pacific coast the favorite is the handsome white or concolor fir. a species that frequently graces eastern lawns as an ornamental. Competing with the firs for Christmas popular- ity In the East are the spruces with their scattered four-sided needles that seem to point in all direc- tions. Spruces are frpquently confused with pines, but they are easily distinguished by the fact that pine leaves airways occur In groups of from two to five; while spruce leaves grow singly. On the big city markets of the eastern seaboard the black and red spruces predominate, but these two species to a large extent g~ve ~ay to the less desirable Norway spruce In the Middle West. The black, spruce, the wood of which is used in violin making and the twigs, formerly,-in spruce beer, has short, thick, pale, bluish-green leaves, while the fotlag~ of the red spruce Is slender and of a dark~green or yellowish-green cast. The firs and spruces comprise the best grades of Christmas trees. The less expensive kinds are usually pines or hemlock. In the East the white pine with its needles in bundles of five. in the South the scrub pine with needles in pairs and In the Wdst the well-known lodgepole pine are the principal species. Much more used for Christmas trees. If for no other reason than that tt Is much more widely distributed and much less valuable as lumber, is the small, scrubby Jack pine and Its numerous related species. AS for the hemlock, it is one of the noblest of the evergreens. Most of the conifers stand on the edges an~ ends of forest lands, holding territory the farthest north, the lflghest up the mountains, the deepest into the swamps and bogs, and other marginal lands that the broad-leaved summer for- eats have no use for. But the hemlock consorts wlth the~flnest of the hardwoods: the highest type of northern forest In the world is the beech-maple- /'[I Christmas without the decorated tree In the cur- net a~tow with the. fights and gleaming with be. 0 m ~ -X- .-X--X--X- "'" ..................... " D ( Can I Learn L, to Fly ) shai:e ~/ ~ draperl by William IL Nel.on ~-- .~t~ains, or "'. ....................... --"7 charact, Spiraling Down i e of the down to earth is an- Mothers...Wateh .q PIItALING The ~ -- o her alrpinne maneuver tbat looks Children's COLD easy but is found difficult by the embt~,o pilot. Spiraling Is easy. but ead colds often"setde"~ Judging distances when cocked over COiMM?N? "n t and chest where they~ on one side and slipping earthward, may become dangerous. Don't takl~ lment upon landing on or Just over a chance--at the first sni~e rub on~ Children's Musterole once .for ~,,e hours. Children's ~V[usterole is Musterole, you have known milder form. This famous blend of oil camphor, menthol and other brings relief naturall.y. Musterole gets irritant"--not just a salve--it trates and stimulates blood helps to draw out and Keep ful for adults and the milder--Child Musterol for little tots. 1 hemlock area of Michigan. In Europe, also, where the forest is mostly straight beech instead of beech-maple, the hemlock goes with the beech. The "Tannenbaum" of which German cblldren sing at Christmas is a hemlock. The German "Tannenbaum" Is similar tG the English word to "tan," for the bark of the hem- lock Is one of the best sources of tanning mate- rial, and Indeed was for many years the thing for which the tree was chiefly valued. The wood of the hemlock, while fairly strong, is rather coarse and brash, not comparing with plrfe or spruce; but In the evll days that are upon us now, with timber growing ever scarcer, hemlock is considered a rather valuable lumber tree. The firs, spruces and pines from the New Eng- land forests and the Appalachians In the East the northern waste lands In the central states and the mountainous regions of the Pacific hinterland supply the bulk of the Christmas demands, but there are a number of minor species of conshl- erable importance that should not be overlooked. It is by no means uncommon to find arborvitae a familiar ornamental species, with flattened, sfaly foliage, offered among the better class of trees, and the common red cedar or Juniper, source of cedar chests, fence posts and matches, sold among the less expensive offerings. Another evergreen which Is often used for a Christmas tree is deserving of mention. Out in the Pacific Northwest the commonest forest tree is the Douglas fir or Douglas spruce. Botanlcally, the tree is a sort of orphan. It is not really a fir. though it resembles it In some respects. Neither is It a spruce, though it is called Douglas spruce about as often as It Is called Douglas fir. Lumbermen sometimes sell it as "Douglas pine." though its kinship to the pines is much more re- mote than to the firs and spruces. Even Ita Latin name. "Pseudotsuga," fails to glee it a home, for translated into English it means simply "false hemlock." And the tree Is as far from being a hemlock as it is from being a pine. Even Its Latin name Is not good Latin, for "pseudo" Is Greek and "tsuga" is Japanese--a weird combination Indeed. But though the tree is hard to place botanlcally It is easy enough tO tell It apart from its rela- tives. Its leaves place it Intermediately between spruce~ and firs, for the needles are somewhat stiff and prickly, but not so much so as those of the spruc~ It is, the cones of the Douglas fir, however, which really identify it. They are unique among cones; there ts no confusing them with those of any other tree. They hang downward, as do those of the spruce, but from between each two scales, and projecting over the next scale below it, grows a peculiar three-pointed appendage. There is an entirely different class of Christ- mas trees---live specimens purchased from nurs- eries to be planted in the open as living remind- ers of the season of good cheer. This is a new a~d delightful custom, caused by high prices, the rapid growth of the conservation attitude toward wild trees and an Increasing desire for beautify- lug home surroundings. Although wild trees dug out of woods and fields may be used, they are more difficult to handle, less attractive and far more fragile of life than nursery-grown plants. The latter are usually supplied with a ball of earth around the roots on which an overcoat of burlap has been fitted. The burlap-covered ball of earth may be set into a tub or directly ou the floor and the burlap hidden with colored crepe paper. When the festivities are over, the tree may be maintained In a thriving condition by merely keep- lag the soil moist until the ground has thawed out sufficiently to permit the digging of a hole for its reception. There is no need even to remove the burlap which soon rots and in easily penetrat: ed when root growth Is resumed in the spring. Tke chances for successful transplanting are excel- lent and the little Christmas tree will soon grow to robust proportions, with its paine constantlg enhanced by the pleasant memories it inspires and by its ever-increasing beauty. (~ by Western NewePal~r Ul~lt.| given line, is another story. "To make a spiral spot landing," my instrnctor explained. "ellmb to 2.~)0 feet--that is the altitude gen- erally specified by the Department of Commerce examlner--and cut the mo- tor directly over the spot on which you Intend to land. Be headed into the wind. "Put the nose down in a glide, then bank to whichever side you desire to turn, and hohl the turn for one tight revolution. Extend the circumference of the next turn so it will end at the ground on or Just over your spot line." I did as directed but could not tell where we were lmlf of the time. The peculiar :'on my side" position and the worry of not Judging distance cor- rectly upset me, so my first spiral was hardly recognizable as such. Being already in a turn and headed down, ! kept worrying about the an- gle of glide. It it were uo~ sufficient, I might stall the plane and slip into a tailspin. My nervousness made me overly cautious and 1 made the second turn too tight, leaving about 300 feet of altitude still to be lost when the second turn ended. [ roared back to 2,000 feet for an- other attempt. That time I discovered that hy listening to the "sing" of the wind through the brace Wires, I could Judge the plane's speed fairly well. If the sound decreased I pushed forward on the stick slightly, if it increased I pulled back. A half-hour of practice gave me the Idea. my Instructor said, and we called it a day. ! was told to practice eights, spirals and spot landings time I flew until that day of days when the Department of Commerce In- spector would be out to give the li- cense examinations. That quiz included a written "check" of my knowledge of the air traffic rules and the air commerce regula- tions. There were 20 questions to an- swer, ten about rules and ten about regulations. The written "exam" was followed by the test flight. A'failure in either division meant a 90-day wait before the examination could be takeo again. 4* 41 Passing the Exam. TWELVE of us took the examina- lion together. We answered such questions as oWhat navigation llght~ are required for night fiytngY' and 'Name (a number was given) grounds for suspension of a pilot's license." and so on. Twenty questions In all. Then came the test flight. '~l'ake-off, fly around, glide In and land. Take-off, climb to 1,000 feet and do three gentle and three steep figure eights. After that Climb to 2.0~0 feet and do a two-turn sph, ai glide landing on or within .500 feet of a line between a huge tree and an au- tomobile parked on the field." the ex- aminer ordered. I was nervous the first'time around and believed ! was overshooting the line. Opening the throttle, ! zoomed up and went around again. That time landing was over the line and easily within the 500-foot distance allotted to IL The figure eights were easy but there still remained that spiral glide from 2.000 feet. 4 bad practiced the maneuver many times since the last lesson but still was none too eertuln of my ability to end it *'spot." Directly over the line I cut the mo- tor and nosed down for the glide. The firm turn around the spiral was tight and easy. As ! eased out of it for the second or loose turn ! began to get buck fever, fearing that i was mis- Judging the distance. More than once i wanted to open the throttle and climb up to the starting point. Why I dldn~, I'll never know. The plane roiled out of the spira! as i moved the stick and rudders and slid to the field, barely N) feet over the line for the best landing of the day for me. BaCk In the field*office the examiner handed me a temporary lteense. [ had passed both parts of the examination. The regular IIceose is mailed directly from Washington, D. (2., and arrlvet~ about 30 days after the student eno- ceasfully passes the test. Lesrfftng to fly was fun. Airplanes are safer than most laymen believe. And they are being made safer each year. ! am no super man and I have learned to operate a plane. The exo perience ha~ "sold" me on aviation. Private pilot's licenses n~ust be re- newed yearly. To do so one hss to fly ten hours and psss a physical ex- amination. (t~ 1930. Western NewaoaDer Unreal Oil for Watchm The oil used in watches--or that which should be used--comes ~rom a cavity In the Jawbone of the porpoise or the blackfisb. The best quality is rare. Cape Cod fishermen bring In most of It. To be tested, it is taken up into Vermont, where the mercury often goes far below zero. The best ~rade is that which remains practlcal~ ty unchanged at these low tempera-I tares. A single drop of this Off iS enouah to lubricate a watch. - Holds That Apologies Are Due Phone Don't we owe the telepbone an apology? We used to them for wrong numbers. ]But doesn't give himself wrong now when dialing a phone? When we reflect how often ory slips, even between looking the book and twirling the dial, can we blame the girls for their er- rors at the s~*itchboard in days ? If all the telephone users for last 50 years who condemned girls were to pass in review, take 50 more years for them to ogize enough for their unjust hess. Let us hope they damn selves now for the same Des Moines Tribune-Capltal. lillll ai" @ug.g.sh teelmg Put yourselt right with nsture chewing Feen - a .,mint. "bnt effectively In d doses. Moder= -- sate -- ~i~tifl~ For thb family, ASK pea I1,11 OR I011~llJ. FOR ONSTIPATIOli Actlem Although U. iS. t~. has turned out some creditable orators, this Indoor sport apparently Is not as unive~+: sally popular as many people SU~ pose. I~ one is to Judge by a conver- ~satton overheard between "You know," said one sweet thing, "I like the fellow who ca~ ~olce his sentiments." "Oh, I guess they're all right," con- ceded the other, "but give me actio~t every tlme. Take It from me, when 1 go into a huddle, actions speak loudo+ er than words."--Los Angeles Times, Every department of houseReeping needs Red Cross Ball Blue. Equail? good for kitchen towels, table llne~, 8heels and pillowcases, etc.--Adv. Clods |h Wiad,or Cud* There are about 360 clocks watches in Windsor castle, the first lever watch ever London Answers. FARM WOMAN